How to make a spotter from a welding machine with your own hands: an algorithm of actions, the purpose of the device

Spotter from the welding machineA spotter is a device classified under the category of welding machines. Designed for spot welding. Works on the basis of current resistance. The device functions by releasing a certain amount of heat energy in the zone of contact with the welding material when an electric current is applied. A spotter from a welding machine can be made by hand. It is classified into inverter and transformer models.

The purpose of the spotter and its features

A homemade spotter is used in relation to car body work. They do this when, for some reason, from the inside align the surface of the part there is no possibility. It is possible to locally heat the metal using the specified tool if there is minor damage to the body area. It is important to figure out how to make a spotter with your own hands in order to get a high-quality and functional product.

The welding process looks like this. Fasteners are fixed in place of the damaged metal. A device is connected to it and, with the help of auxiliary devices, or with their own hands, they pull out the dents. The body repair tool makes it possible to quickly and efficiently restore a car without painting the damaged area. Spotter is good because during its operation it is possible to control the functioning of every detail. This is due to the fact that the probability of overheating and rupture of wires is quite high.

Unit structure properties

The device consists of components such as a box, a gun, a cable, an electrode.

Do-it-yourself spotter from a welding machineThe box contains the entire system of the apparatus, which required for welding ... To accurately and quickly carry out bodywork, it is necessary to adhere to the order and technology of the process.

If the surface has undergone deformation, it is necessary to clean it of any coating. It can be rust, paint, or varnish. This stage is very important, since the quality of metal joining directly affects the outcome of the entire process. Contacts are attached to the surface that has undergone correction. Fasteners are welded onto the cleaned area of ​​the damaged area, to which the device in question is connected.

Following this, the device is captured with a pistol, after which the dent is pulled out. For leveling, resort to the use of a hammer, hydraulic cylinders and other devices. Pay attention to the thickness of the metal. Here you should understand what equipment will make it possible straighten the machine so as not to harm her. The return hammer is not used in combination with aluminum. In addition, not every unit can cope with a galvanized body. When the straightening of the body is finished, the welded part is twisted. The contact point is cleaned with a grinder.

Spotter key detail

Homemade spotter, what isThe welding gun is the main component of the device. A factory-made device is used for continuous operation. You can make it on the basis of a gun from construction glue with your own hands. An alternative method would be to use parts from semi-automatic welding. The same parts with length indicators from 12 to 14 mm are cut out of the textolite. There should be 2 of them. A bracket used as an electrode attachment for welding is installed in them. If desired, you can mount a light bulb, as well as a pulse switch.

The bracket can be made of copper. It can have a section - rectangular or square. A copper rod with a thickness of 8 to 10 mm is used as an electrode for welding. The gun should be designed so that the electrode can be changed without disassembly. To connect the gun to the device, use a combination of a welding cable with the required cross-sectional area and a 5-core control cable. The connection of the latter is carried out in accordance with the diagram.

Three wires are connected to the switch. Two more move to the illuminating light bulb and the engine. The welding cable must be stripped and soldered into a special hole in the bracket.

DIY manufacturing algorithm

To make the unit yourself, you need some skills and an understanding of the basics of working with such a technique. Do-it-yourself spotter from a welding machine can be made in accordance with the drawings. For this, it is necessary to carefully study the design features of the apparatus. You can use the parts at hand.

It is not always advisable to purchase a factory device. A high-quality unit can cost a tidy sum. It is necessary consider configuration devices and its drawings.

Inverter equipment

Most often, an inverter-based unit is made using homemade material. The main components of the device are a thyristor relay and a welding inverter. To assemble the device, you will need:

  • Spotter from the welding machinethyristor with an indicator of 200 volts;
  • a transformer for lowering 122 volts for controlling the relay by means of a button;
  • relay with a power of 30 amperes;
  • diode bridge;
  • button for control and monitoring;
  • contact group 220 volts.

The transformer is connected using a diode bridge. The thyristor of the relay is connected to it. The transformer supplies the control branch of the circuit. Before making a spotter with your own hands, you need to provide a safe working environment. For this purpose, rubber mats are placed under the feet and adhere to standard safety rules.

The main stages of assembly

To make a homemade unit, a Nordic welding machine is ideal. It is necessary to be able to change the configuration of the device so that the DC spotter outputs at least 1500 amperes. The assembly is carried out according to the following rules:

  1. How to make a homemade spotterRemove the secondary layer from the apparatus. Sometimes there are several of them.
  2. Before installation, determine the number of turns per volt. For this, the primary winding is wrapped with copper wire. Then the Volt indicator is measured.
  3. The resulting indicator is divided by the number of turns. The result will indicate the number of turns per volt.
  4. A tire is produced from the secondary layer that has been removed. It is advisable not to allow this parameter to fall below 160 square mm.
  5. The voltage should be 6 volts. If the cross-section is smaller, you can divide the tire into several parts. They are fastened with insulating tape.

The number of fragments depends on the initial indicators. Let's say if the parameter is 40 sq. mm., the tire is torn into 4 parts. It is necessary to take two tires with a winding of electrical tape or tape for painting. The insulation must be consistent. First comes a layer of insulating tape, then scotch tape, and insulating tape is wound on top. Rivets can be installed on open areas.

The resulting busbars are transferred to a transformer. This process is not easy and requires certain skills. The presence of a hammer and the presence of an additional assistant are required. This will ensure that the tire will sit better and will not suffer any damage. If the power indicator is normal, then the device can be considered ready. If not, you will have to carry out a number of experiments, connecting wires to the primary winding.

Transformer production stages

Assembling the transformer is a mandatory step in making a spotter from a welding machine. This kind of work is the most difficult. Winding is time consuming, but this step is optional. The winding is carried out on a ring iron. The secondary wire must be made of aluminum or copper. Between the coils, high-quality insulation should be laid. For this, transformer paper in several layers is suitable. For maximum reliability, it is impregnated with paraffin.

Pistol make a semi-automatic . It will require some additions to secure the tool on the drawing device. To make ticks, fit a simple pipe 20 by 20 mm. Power wires connecting the transformer and gun must have an identical cross section. As an alternative, they must exceed the tire cross section. Do not use too large through the length of the wire. The maximum size must be 2.5 m. The working cable connecting the transformer and gun must be made on the basis of a switching cable with thermal insulation. With each heating, this layer will be tightened.

Important nuances in design

The greatest difficulties in the transformer adaptation are to increase the output strength of the current. For this, experimenting with a bus that is installed instead of the secondary winding. Experience makes it clear that the cross section indicator should be at least 160 square meters. mm. As for tension in the bus, it should not be less than 6 volts. The most important point when assembling the transformer is to comply with the optimal isolation of network windings. If the pad was made incorrectly, it will lead to undesirable consequences.

SPOTTER is a fairly useful device that helps to significantly increase the efficiency and speed of work with body repair. But this unit has a sufficiently high cost in the simplicity of the design. Therefore, many masters prefer to make a spotter from an old transformer or from the welding machine with their own hands.

Purpose Spotter.

In the body repair of the car, it is often necessary to remove dents, for example, after an accident. For this purpose, various ways are applied: pulling dents suction cups, alignment of hammer blows from the back side of the part, etc. In the latter case, the part must be dismantled to eliminate the defect.

Significantly accelerate and simplify the level of alignment of parts of the car allows the use of spotter. This unit is a kind of spot contact welding, with which you can weld to damaged bodies of the car washer, studs, bolts, hooks and other fasteners. In the future, various tools for aligning dents are engaged for them.

How to make a spotter from a welding machine with your own hands: an algorithm of actions, the purpose of the device

Also, the spotter can be used for soldering, warming, hardening and precipitation of aligned surfaces.

Device and principle of SPOTTER

Spotter consists of the following elements:

  • welding machine, which can be transformer or inverter type;
  • cables (power cable and cable mass);
  • welding pistol (stadder);
  • electrode with inertial hammer.

How to make a spotter from a welding machine with your own hands: an algorithm of actions, the purpose of the device

When the button is pressed, the current starts to arrive at it. Depending on the selected mode, the current supply may be permanent or in the form of one short pulse. Next, the current enters the electrode that can have tips of different shapes.

The device works on the following principle.

  1. Place on the body of the car you want to align, swelling from the paint. You should also clean the small area to connect the masses cable.
  2. SPOTTER electrode attaches any fastener, for example, washer, and welded to the site of straws.
  3. The tool is cling to the puck, after which the dent is pulled out.

Pulling dents can be carried out without welding fasteners. In this case, the electrode with an inertial hammer requires a pointed tip.

The electrode is applied to the desired location on the part and the tip is welded to it with a short current.

Further, without removing the electrode from the part, blows with a hammer in the direction opposite to the tip, thereby pulling out the dent (you cannot use a reverse hammer on aluminum). After eliminating the defect, the welded end of the electrode easily breaks off.

How and from what to make a spotter

The spotter transformer differs markedly from the classic welding transformer.

In arc welding, the metal is heated by an electric arc, and in spot heat, it is released due to the transition resistance in the electrode-metal section.

This occurs during arc welding if, for example, the wrong operating mode is set on the machine. In this case, the electrode sticks to the metal, which can cause damage to the device.

To prevent this from happening, spot welding is carried out in a pulsed current mode (up to 1 second). And since arc burning is not required for spot welding, the voltage in the spotter should be minimal (about 6 V), and the current strength should be high (at least 1000 A).

From the welding machine

It is impractical to make this unit from an inverter, if only due to the fact that constant current is not required for spot welding.

In addition, the transformer will have to be redone in order to achieve high current rates. With such success, you can make a spot welding unit from scratch.

If there is an inverter device, then it is better to use it for its intended purpose, and adapt a conventional transformer welder for the spotter.

As for semiautomatic devices, all universal models of these units already have the function of pulse welding, and they will not need to be altered. But if there is a broken, ordinary semiautomatic device available, then it will need to redo the transformer in it.

How to make a spotter from a welding machine with your own hands: an algorithm of actions, the purpose of the device

Semiautomatic welding machine Aurora

Alteration of the transformer consists in removing the secondary winding and winding a new one. The spotter requires a welding current of 1000 A.

If, in the calculations, we proceed from the fact that the current density is 8 A per 1 mm2, then its cross section should be about 120 mm2. But winding a wire of this cross section is quite difficult.

Therefore, you can take a bus with a smaller cross-section, for example, 80 mm2, if the device will not be used in too intensive mode.

Advice! You can achieve the required cross-sectional area by folding several thin tires together and wrapping them with fabric tape.

To determine the number of turns, do the following.

  1. Wrap any insulated conductor around the magnetic core. 10 turns will be enough.
  2. Connect the primary winding to the network, and measure the voltage on the improvised secondary.
  3. The result obtained must be divided by the number of turns, that is, by 10. As a result, you get a value that determines the number of turns to obtain 1 V voltage. But since the spotter requires a voltage of 6 V, multiplying the value obtained, you can find out the number of turns.

Based on the diameter of the wire with the required section, it is possible to determine whether this winding will enter the free space between the primary and secondary windings of the transformer (not yet removed).

If there is enough space, then the secondary can not be removed from the magnetic circuit, but a new winding can be wound over it. In this case, the welder can be used for both electric arc welding and spot welding.

How to make a spotter from a welding machine with your own hands: an algorithm of actions, the purpose of the device

A modified transformer is not the only part required to make a spotter from a welding machine. To it, you also need to add an electronic discharge control unit and a small transformer to provide the module with power. Below is a diagram of the block that controls the spotter.

How to make a spotter from a welding machine with your own hands: an algorithm of actions, the purpose of the device

This scheme works as follows.

  1. When the circuit is closed by the switch S1, current starts to flow to the primary of the transformer T1.
  2. Further, the capacitor begins to charge. It is connected via a closed switch contact to a diode bridge.
  3. The output transformer T2 will be de-energized until the switch button S is pressed. After that, the voltage from the capacitor through the variable resistor will go to the control electrode of the thyristor. Further, the voltage will go to the primary of the output transformer, after which a pulse with the current required for welding will appear on its secondary winding.
  4. After the capacitor is discharged, the module returns to its original state. To repeat the impulse, you must press the switch again.

After the control unit is ready, all components are placed in a plastic or metal case.

How to make a spotter from a welding machine with your own hands: an algorithm of actions, the purpose of the device

From battery

This device, made of a 12 V battery, is mobile and can operate regardless of the presence of a power outlet. The following components are required to manufacture the unit.

  1. Standard battery for 12 V and 75 A / h and above.
  2. Solenoid relay. You can use a relay from the car starter. It is desirable that it be collapsible for periodic cleaning of the contacts inside it. How to make a spotter from a welding machine with your own hands: an algorithm of actions, the purpose of the device
  3. Start button.
  4. Terminal cables and welding gun.

The assembly of the apparatus is carried out according to the diagram below:

  • a ground cable is connected to the negative terminal of the battery, which must contact with the part prepared for repair;

How to make a spotter from a welding machine with your own hands: an algorithm of actions, the purpose of the device

  • the first contact of the relay is connected to the positive terminal of the battery;
  • a cable going to the welding gun is connected to the second contact of the relay;
  • a start button is installed between the first and third (connected to the battery positive) contact of the relay;
  • the solenoid relay must be connected to ground.

The cross-section of the cables should be about 100 mm2, and their length should be no more than 1.5 m. The only drawback of this device is that the battery runs out quickly, and it takes time to charge it.

From the microwave

To make the device, you need a transformer removed from the microwave. But for reliability it will be better if you use two coils. Remove the secondary winding from each transformer and wind a couple of turns with a cable with a cross-section of at least 50 mm2 instead.

How to make a spotter from a welding machine with your own hands: an algorithm of actions, the purpose of the device

The primary windings of both transformers are connected in parallel. Further, the spotter control module, which was discussed above, is connected to the circuit. You can also simplify the design of the spotter if you include a time relay and a solenoid relay from a car in the circuit. How to do this, you can find them out in this video.

Important! Despite the low voltage - 6 V and less, the current obtained at the output of the transformer has enormous values, about 1000 A, which poses a great danger to human life. Therefore, both windings of the transformer must be grounded.

Welding gun

No blueprints are required to make the welding handle. A glue gun body is best suited for this purpose. You will also need a copper rod with a diameter of about 20 mm.

How to make a spotter from a welding machine with your own hands: an algorithm of actions, the purpose of the device

On one side of the rod, it is necessary to cut a thread (M14x1.5). Various welding nozzles will be screwed onto it. A hole is drilled on the other side and an M8 internal thread is cut. The cable will be attached to this place. Also, several grooves should be made on the part so that it is better fixed inside the case.

  • Further, the part is installed in the housing.
  • It remains only to find a suitable button, place it in the case and connect it to the electrical circuit of the device.

A source: http://Tehnika.expert/dlya-remonta/svarochnyj-apparat/spotter-svoimi-rukami.html

How to make a spotter with your own hands according to the drawings

How to make a spotter from a welding machine with your own hands: an algorithm of actions, the purpose of the deviceSpotter is a modification of the welding machine, with the help of which car body repairs are done. Such work, as a rule, requires special knowledge of the structure of the car. Certain places in it often cannot be aligned from the inside. This is where this apparatus helps. Due to the high cost of factory models, craftsmen are often interested in how to make a spotter with their own hands from a welding machine.

Spotter, its application and design

Such a tool is used to level out car dents when repairs from the outside are impossible. They can heat up some of the metal, and at the same time damage to the body will be minor.

In particular, it is used for the following purposes:

  • body straightening;
  • leveling the surface of the body without the need to disassemble it.

How to make a spotter from a welding machine with your own hands: an algorithm of actions, the purpose of the device

The colossal and irreplaceable benefit of this device lies in its use for leveling body parts when access to certain parts is limited due to the specific structure of the car.

When straightening damaged parts of the body, special fasteners of the device are welded to the deformed surface, and then pulls it out.

It should also be noted that the spotter is capable of heating the metal during operation, and this contributes to quick alignment, obtaining rigidity and the desired shape.

There are several schemes by which you can assemble the device. For such purposes, not only a welding machine can be used, but also an old battery, microwave oven, inverter or transformer. It is not difficult to make a welding machine from a battery with your own hands.

The work of this design is to point-pull the damaged part according to the principle of a hammer.

It looks like this:

  • the machine's reverse hammer is fixed to the body using a welding pulse;
  • the handbrake of the device must be pulled along the guide towards you, while the support washer remains in place.

The simplest spotter has 2 modes:

  • temporary, when a ring is fixed on the surface;
  • welding - light welding of the electrode to the surface is used when the device is attached to the car.

Inverter-based spot welding

How to make a spotter from a welding machine with your own hands: an algorithm of actions, the purpose of the deviceSelf-made contact welding from an inverter is the most common type of homemade spotter for straightening. There are many ways to assemble this device.

This type of spotter is very similar to resistance welding and is a modification of it. But its design has a distinctive feature - there are no pincers in it. That is why it can be considered an analogue of electric arc welding, in which the current passes through the body of the car. One welding contact is attached to the surface, and the nozzle and stem protrude as the second.

Inverter device

The main part of the device is a gun, which can be made from a similar device for construction glue or from semi-automatic welding. Many are interested in how to assemble a puller with their own hands. The circuit is pretty simple.

Laser level: types, application, choice and price

It includes the following elements:

  • inverter welding;
  • three-way relay.

In order to assemble it, you will need the following details:

  • How to make a spotter from a welding machine with your own hands: an algorithm of actions, the purpose of the device200 volt thyristor;
  • a transformer that regulates the voltage and lowers it to 12 volts;
  • relay (30 amperes);
  • diode bridge;
  • contact Group;
  • button to control.

Using a diode bridge, the transformer is connected to the network, and a thyristor is connected to the bridge.

Spotter works according to the following algorithm:

  • How to make a spotter from a welding machine with your own hands: an algorithm of actions, the purpose of the devicethe power button is pressed, the capacitor starts up and the thyristor and resistor for a short time;
  • subsequently, with the help of diodes, voltage is applied to the transformer winding;
  • then the electrode (guide) is welded to the surface of the car;
  • when the capacitor is discharged, the thyristor closes, and the transformer loses current;
  • the work of the apparatus is completed, and only the capacitor continues to be charged from the transformer for further work.

Alternatively, thyristors and diode bridge are replaced by triacs. The design of a homemade spotter must be carefully calculated for it to work properly. It should work without interruption, even with minimal investment.

Necessary materials for work

How to make a spotter from a welding machine with your own hands: an algorithm of actions, the purpose of the deviceTo collect the device, you need up to 40 cubic centimeters of metal. Overheating rarely occurs along the perimeter of the thyristor, most often they occur after the cable. The stem of the device can also get very hot, so it is advisable to make it from brass.

The cable of the device must be with a cross section of 70 square meters. millimeters, and 2 meters is enough for the length of the hammer. It is also necessary to equip impulse control.

First, along with the copper bus, wind the transformer with a secondary winding. It can also be made of aluminum. After that, you need to wind the layers of winding two more times. The result should be a 250 square millimeter winding (5 windings with six turns).

It is also necessary to pay great attention to the outer part of the hammer (electrode). As a rule, a construction glue gun is used as a handle, and a heat-insulating wire is required for it. It should be borne in mind that the insulation winding will contract during operation.

Specifications

The bodywork reverse hammer made of inverter has a number of features. Specifications may differ from model to model, but their functions and purposes are similar.

Both a home-made and a factory device, which has an industrial purpose, have their important functions:

  • How to make a spotter from a welding machine with your own hands: an algorithm of actions, the purpose of the devicefastening washers to the surface using a spotter;
  • welding takes place pointwise using an electrode, which pulls out the surface of the car;
  • the presence of the possibility of heating parts, their alignment and cooling;
  • simple design of the device makes it convenient to use;
  • two operating modes - one short-term with time regulation, and the second constant;
  • the presence of an automatic temperature control system, which consists in turning off the device and cooling the part at a high temperature, as well as turning on welding if necessary.

Working principle of the manual riveter for metal blanks

The technical characteristics of the homemade device are as follows:

  • How to make a spotter from a welding machine with your own hands: an algorithm of actions, the purpose of the devicethe presence of voltage in the 220 volt network for the appropriate operation of the device;
  • operating frequency 50 Hz .;
  • maximum power 10 kW;
  • maximum current 1250 A;
  • the secondary winding must have a maximum voltage of 9 V;
  • set time up to 1.1 seconds;
  • two operating modes: one for spot welding with a timer, and the second constant, for normal;
  • when spot welding, the maximum current strength should be no more than 15 percent of the maximum when welding metal;
  • for coal welding, the maximum percentage should not exceed 75%;
  • the spotter needle and its washer must have a pulling force of 100 kilograms for normal operation;
  • product dimensions 295x830x375 mm;
  • the maximum weight of the entire device is 31 kilograms.

How to work with a metal spotter

How to make a spotter from a welding machine with your own hands: an algorithm of actions, the purpose of the deviceThere is a technology for working with such a device, which has been used by craftsmen for a long time. It is used for body work on a car, the elimination of deformed parts in hard-to-reach places. As a rule, such work is carried out with the doors of the car and its wings in order not to remove such parts completely. The technology can be applied wherever there is inward deformation of the surface.

Sometimes novice craftsmen are interested in how to make a homemade battery and spotter.

Spot welding from a battery is performed by supplying current to the electrode, welding it to the surface, leveling the surface with a gun and tapping the perimeter around the damaged area with a hammer to fix it in the right place. Thanks to this method, the deformed part can be quickly aligned and returned to its original position. You need to pull it in carefully.

After leveling, the deformed surface is ground until the welding points are removed from the attachment and the surface becomes smooth. Do not forget about the mandatory grounding of the device. Also, the negative terminal must be removed from the battery.

The technology for working with a spotter looks like this:

  • How to make a spotter from a welding machine with your own hands: an algorithm of actions, the purpose of the devicethe damaged surface must be cleaned before the first appearance of the "bare" metal;
  • a negative contact is attached to the deformed surface;
  • the electrode is welded to the working surface;
  • stretching the damaged surface to the right place;
  • the welded electrode is removed from the surface by rotating movements;
  • cleaning the surface from welding and preparing it for putty.

To work with such a device, regardless of whether it is factory-made or home-made, you must have a minimum experience with welding. It is important to comply with the rules for working with such a device.

This will allow you to straighten the damaged surface quickly, efficiently and, most importantly, safely. Spotter is an indispensable tool for deformed vehicle surfaces that require spot repair.

You can assemble such a device yourself and not spend money on expensive factory models.

Drill types for metal: classification and description

Alteration of the welding transformer

After reading the assembly instructions, you can learn how to make a point-type welding machine from a transformer. Similar drawings can be found on the Internet in specialized forums.

It should be noted that the voltage of a conventional transformer is at least 70 V, and for point use this figure should not exceed 6-9 V.

In order to alter it to the desired parameters, it is required to make a new winding in the transformer or remake the old one. If the old winding is removed, then it can then be used in low-voltage devices.

Welding transformers can be of different types:

  • w-shaped;
  • o-shaped;
  • toroidal.

The advantage of the latter is in their low weight, but their alteration requires a lot of labor. The required winding cross-section is applied in connection with the current received. The spotter must have a voltage of at least a thousand amperes.

If the current density is 8 amperes per cubic millimeter, the cross-sectional area of ​​the wire should not be less than 120 mm³.

It is very difficult to work with such indicators, therefore, if there is no long-term use of the apparatus, then the cross section can be reduced by at least 80 mm³.

It can be obtained by stacking several smaller wires together. For ease of use, such wires should be fastened together with electrical tape.

First, you need to determine the number of turns. To do this, you need to make a test winding using a conventional insulated wire. After that, the transformer is turned on and the voltage in the test winding is checked.

The resulting voltage must be divided by the number of turns. This number will show the number of turns for a voltage of 1 V.

Since the transformer must be redone by 6-9 V, this number must be multiplied by the required voltage.

Depending on the obtained dimensions of the bus, the possibility of placing it on the transformer is determined. If the new winding does not fit, the old one must be removed. It must be mounted carefully, taking care not to damage the other parts of the transformer.

The location of the winding depends on the type of core. If you use a toroidal or armored transformer, the question of its location, as a rule, does not arise.

It is not difficult to make a spotter yourself, the main thing is patience and desire. It is also necessary to carefully study the instructions for assembly and operation. There are a lot of such materials on the Internet.

A source: https://pochini.guru/instrument/spotter-po-chertezham

Spotter from a welding machine: how to assemble it yourself

Spotter (spot from English - place, point) is a device for spot welding, it is actively used in the process of straightening a car. Bodywork requires the performer to be extremely precise and to recreate the original geometry of the element.

A special tool is needed to create the perfect look. Straighteners often use spotters that help restore the original state of the part without dismantling. The device is relatively expensive, but it is possible to make a spotter with your own hands.

Features of using a spotter

The device in work on straightening is used for:

  • body surface adjustments without dismantling;
  • welding of body elements.

The device is especially convenient and effective for influencing areas or parts of a machine with a hidden or inconvenient location. Spotter is used when it is impossible to use alternative straightening methods due to limited access to the damaged area.

The principle of operation of the tool comes down to several main stages:

  1. Cleaning the damaged area from paintwork, putty, primer residues, etc.
  2. Welding special fasteners to the deformed area.
  3. An inertial hammer is hooked onto the retainer, the metal is leveled with it.

A useful property of the device is the ability to warm up the part. In the process of heating and cooling, shape and stiffness are restored faster and more efficiently.

How to make a spotter from a welding machine with your own hands: an algorithm of actions, the purpose of the device

Sometimes, when it becomes necessary to perform urgent welding work, the master cannot do without a special apparatus.

How does a spotter work?

The device uses an inverter, but also uses a battery and a transformer for the spotter. The tool is based on the principle of a hammer, it acts on one point, the only difference is the opposite direction of the effect.

Standard example of work:

  • a reverse hammer is a guide and a weighting agent on it, which is attached to the deformed area;
  • the heavy washer moves along the guide in the opposite direction to the dent. The tool provides flattening of the metal in points.

A standard electric straightener can operate in two modes:

  • short. The guide is fixed in the desired place with rings;
  • welding. For welding, the installation is transferred to the minimum power indicators and a carbon electrode is inserted.

DIY spotter based on inverters

There are a number of schemes according to which a homemade spotter is made. A spotter from a do-it-yourself welding machine is the most famous and easiest method for making an installation. A drawing of a spotter from an inverter is common in the network in various modifications, the popularity is due to the high power of the installation.

How to make a spotter from a welding machine with your own hands: an algorithm of actions, the purpose of the device

Do-it-yourself spotter assembly from the welding machine

The device is classified as a type of contact welding; no pliers are required for use. According to the specified parameter, the spotter is comparable to electric arc welding, where the current passes through the car body. The "minus" terminal is fixed on the body, and the nozzle and the stem will be used as a contact for "plus".

Inverter spotter circuit

A homemade spotter with your own hands, which is assembled from a semiautomatic device, requires the use of two main spare parts:

  • thyristor relay;
  • welding inverter.

It is easy to assemble the simplest spotter with your own hands if you have:

  • transformer, it is designed to reduce the voltage to 12 V, it must be installed to control the relay through a button;
  • thyristor 200 V;
  • relay 30 A;
  • diode bridge;
  • switch of contacts for 220 V;
  • buttons to adjust the work.

The diode bridge is connected to the network before the transformer. A thyristor from a relay is connected to the bridge. The transformer installation is useful for powering the control branch in the thyristor circuit.

How to make a spotter from a welding machine with your own hands: an algorithm of actions, the purpose of the device

Inverter spotter circuit

A do-it-yourself spotter from a semiautomatic device has the following scheme:

  1. When the control button S3 is pressed, the discharge of the capacitor C1 is activated, the resistor R1 is briefly activated together with the thyristor V9.
  2. The voltage is supplied to the transformer winding through the D232 diode block.
  3. The process of welding the body by means of the electrode is started.
  4. When the capacitor C1 loses its charge, the thyristor closes and the voltage from the transformer is redirected.
  5. After the winding is de-energized, the welding process ends, now the capacitor C1 goes into the energy storage mode from the transformer T1.

If, before making a spotter with your own hands, it was not possible to find a diode bridge and a thyristor, it is possible to replace them with triacs.

For the high-quality operation of a spotter based on a machine, it is important to carefully consider the design and layout of the device. Even cheap devices must meet the minimum installation requirements.

Materials (edit)

A spotter from a welding machine will require materials and tools to create the installation. You need sheet metal 35-40 cm2, since you cannot make a spotter without it due to the risk of overheating.

The temperature on home-made equipment rises only in places after the cable; additionally, strong heating occurs on an iron rod with a diameter of 16 mm.

It is preferable to use brass to reduce the stem temperature.

How to make a spotter from a welding machine with your own hands: an algorithm of actions, the purpose of the device

A welding transformer for a spotter, designed for spot work, is somewhat different from the classic design

The characteristic of the power cable is determined depending on the power of the spotter, but it is preferable to choose 70 mm2 or more. It is better to take a wire for ground with a length of 1.7 m, and for connecting a hammer - 2.1 m.It is advisable to equip a spotter with your own hands from a battery with a control with pulses through a thyristor PM-40.

Initially, the outer winding of the transformer is applied using a copper bus with dimensions 6, 5, 4 on the 3rd layer of the winding. When using a battery, it is allowed to replace the wire with an aluminum one. Two more are applied to the second winding. At the end of the work, the battery-based equipment should be made of aluminum or copper with an area of ​​250 mm2 (5 windings with 6 turns each).

It is important to pay attention not only to the functionality of the installation, but also to the ease of use. The design of the inertial hammer creates conditions for safe and easy use of the machine. The spare part of the glue gun is mainly used.

A layer of thermal insulation and a wire for switching must be applied to the power cable. Thermal insulation should be applied with a margin, since when heated, it contracts and the area can become bare.

Key features and specifications of the spotter

Regardless of the type of device: factory (used in industry) or homemade design, they have the same functions:

  • welding of body elements using repair washers;
  • spot welding with a metal electrode. The pin is selected strong so that with its help it is possible to pull out the body;
  • the ability to heat body parts by means of a carbon-type electrode and sharply cool the base. This function contributes to the creation of metal precipitation;
  • due to two modes of operation, the efficiency and ease of use of the device are improved. When the first mode is activated, stable operation occurs, it is intended for use with a carbon electrode. The second mode implies a short activation, the activity time is set manually. Used together with an iron electrode, often used to install washers;

How to make a spotter from a welding machine with your own hands: an algorithm of actions, the purpose of the device

Spotters for spot welding should be limited by the time it takes to weld the part

The device has a built-in cooling system and a thermostat for deactivation in case of strong heating. Switching off and on is performed automatically when the set marks are reached.

Basic characteristics of spotters:

  • the voltage in the power supply network for the correct operation of the installation is 220 V (sometimes 380 V);
  • AC frequency - from 50 to 60 Hz;
  • maximum power of the device - 10 kW;
  • current strength at maximum load - 1300 A;
  • voltage in the 2nd layer of the welding machine winding - 8-9V;
  • active time range - from 0 to 1.2 s;
  • 2 operating modes: with timer activation (for spot welding) and continuous operation in standard mode and tempering;
  • productivity when setting the spot welding mode at a ratio with the maximum output power - 15%;
  • productivity in the case of using coal welding in relation to the maximum output power - 75%;
  • force to break the needle - over 100 kg;
  • tractive effort in relation to the washer - over 100 kg;
  • dimensions of the structure - 380x290x840 mm;
  • weight - 32 kg.

How to weld parts with a spotter?

Today, a unified technology for using the installation has been developed, which is used by all professional straighteners.

Most often, the technique is appropriate for working with deformed parts that are in hard-to-reach places. Such welding is used for straightening damaged fenders, doors, pillars.

The spotter will come in handy for correcting any surface that needs a leveling force in the opposite direction.

How to make a spotter from a welding machine with your own hands: an algorithm of actions, the purpose of the device

Resistance welding needs a short voltage pulse

Spot welding uses a transmitted current to create adhesion to the part. Further, a stop or an inertial hammer is attached to the site. The listed manipulations provide fast and high-quality body restoration.

After bringing the body element to its original state, the hook is removed and the surface is cleaned. Grinding is necessary due to the presence of metal residues on the body from welding, otherwise it will not be possible to install a smooth surface.

Spotter technology:

  1. The damaged area of ​​the part is cleaned of the entire coating, a high-quality contact with the metal must be created.
  2. A grounding contact is connected to the cleaned place.
  3. Weld the fasteners for the hook of the tools.
  4. With the help of metal leveling tools, they are hooked onto the retainer.
  5. Stretch the area until the original state is restored or close to it.
  6. The attached toe is torn off manually in a circular motion.
  7. The surface is cleaned until the smooth state is restored and prepared for puttying and painting.

By the type of work, a spotter is similar to a welding machine; in order to use it, it is desirable to have basic welding skills. In the process of manipulation, it is imperative to follow the rules of operation and personal protection. The device is useful for all types of restoration work with a car body, where a point effect is required.

Expert advice

Experienced bodybuilders recommend:

  • keep an eye on the grounding of the case - this is a mandatory safety measure. Disconnect the minus terminal from the battery;
  • supplement the spotter circuit with auxiliary circuit elements to prevent overload and increase power;
  • if you want to straighten the power elements with the apparatus, give the auto choice to more powerful devices. A steel bar is installed in them instead of an electrode.

It is not difficult to create a spotter with your own hands in the presence of all the materials and time, only it is important to think over the location and type of circuit elements. The simplest device allows you to straighten a car in the garage, but it will not be enough in production.

A source: https://mensdrive.ru/instrumenty-i-materialy/spotter-iz-svarochnogo-apparata

How to make a spotter from a welding machine with your own hands: an algorithm of actions, the purpose of the device

How to make a spotter from a welding machine with your own hands: an algorithm of actions, the purpose of the device

A homemade spotter is used in relation to car body work. They do this when, for some reason, from the inside align the surface of the part there is no possibility. It is possible to locally heat the metal using the specified tool if there is minor damage to the body area. It is important to figure out how to make a spotter with your own hands in order to get a high-quality and functional product.

The welding process looks like this. Fasteners are fixed in place of the damaged metal. A device is connected to it and, with the help of auxiliary devices, or with their own hands, they pull out the dents.

The body repair tool makes it possible to quickly and efficiently restore a car without painting the damaged area. Spotter is good because during its operation it is possible to control the functioning of every detail.

This is due to the fact that the probability of overheating and rupture of wires is quite high.

Unit structure properties

The device consists of components such as a box, a gun, a cable, an electrode.

How to make a spotter from a welding machine with your own hands: an algorithm of actions, the purpose of the deviceThe box contains the entire system of the apparatus, which required for welding ... To accurately and quickly carry out bodywork, it is necessary to adhere to the order and technology of the process.

If the surface has undergone deformation, it is necessary to clean it of any coating. It can be rust, paint, or varnish.

This stage is very important, since the quality of metal joining directly affects the outcome of the entire process. Contacts are attached to the surface that has undergone correction.

Fasteners are welded onto the cleaned area of ​​the damaged area, to which the device in question is connected.

Following this, the device is captured with a pistol, after which the dent is pulled out. For leveling, resort to the use of a hammer, hydraulic cylinders and other devices. Pay attention to the thickness of the metal.

Here you should understand what equipment will make it possible straighten the machine so as not to harm her. The return hammer is not used in combination with aluminum. In addition, not every unit can cope with a galvanized body.

When the straightening of the body is finished, the welded part is twisted. The contact point is cleaned with a grinder.

How to make a spotter from a welding machine with your own hands: an algorithm of actions, the purpose of the device

The bracket can be made of copper. It can have a section - rectangular or square. A copper rod with a thickness of 8 to 10 mm is used as an electrode for welding.

The gun should be designed so that the electrode can be changed without disassembly.

To connect the gun to the device, use a combination of a welding cable with the required cross-section and a 5-wire control cable. The connection of the latter is carried out in accordance with the diagram.

Three wires are connected to the switch. Two more move to the illuminating light bulb and the engine. The welding cable must be stripped and soldered into a special hole in the bracket.

DIY manufacturing algorithm

To make the unit yourself, you need some skills and an understanding of the basics of working with such a technique. Do-it-yourself spotter from a welding machine can be made in accordance with the drawings. For this, it is necessary to carefully study the design features of the apparatus. You can use the parts at hand.

It is not always advisable to purchase a factory device. A high-quality unit can cost a tidy sum. It is necessary consider configuration devices and its drawings.

Inverter equipment

Most often, an inverter-based unit is made using homemade material. The main components of the device are a thyristor relay and a welding inverter. To assemble the device, you will need:

  • How to make a spotter from a welding machine with your own hands: an algorithm of actions, the purpose of the devicethyristor with an indicator of 200 volts;
  • a transformer for lowering 122 volts for controlling the relay by means of a button;
  • relay with a power of 30 amperes;
  • diode bridge;
  • button for control and monitoring;
  • contact group 220 volts.

The transformer is connected using a diode bridge. The thyristor of the relay is connected to it. The transformer supplies the control branch of the circuit. Before making a spotter with your own hands, you need to provide a safe working environment. For this purpose, rubber mats are placed under the feet and adhere to standard safety rules.

The main stages of assembly

To make a homemade unit, a Nordic welding machine is ideal. It is necessary to be able to change the configuration of the device so that the DC spotter outputs at least 1500 amperes. The assembly is carried out according to the following rules:

  1. How to make a spotter from a welding machine with your own hands: an algorithm of actions, the purpose of the deviceRemove the secondary layer from the apparatus. Sometimes there are several of them.
  2. Before installation, determine the number of turns per volt. For this, the primary winding is wrapped with copper wire. Then the Volt indicator is measured.
  3. The resulting indicator is divided by the number of turns. The result will indicate the number of turns per volt.
  4. A tire is produced from the secondary layer that has been removed. It is advisable not to allow this parameter to fall below 160 square mm.
  5. The voltage should be 6 volts. If the cross-section is smaller, you can divide the tire into several parts. They are fastened with insulating tape.

The number of fragments depends on the initial indicators. Let's say if the parameter is 40 sq. mm., the tire is torn into 4 parts. It is necessary to take two tires with a winding of electrical tape or tape for painting. The insulation must be consistent. First comes a layer of insulating tape, then scotch tape, and insulating tape is wound on top. Rivets can be installed on open areas.

The resulting busbars are transferred to a transformer. This process is not easy and requires certain skills. The presence of a hammer and the presence of an additional assistant are required.

This will ensure that the tire will sit better and will not suffer any damage. If the power indicator is normal, then the device can be considered ready.

If not, you will have to carry out a number of experiments, connecting wires to the primary winding.

Assembling the transformer is a mandatory step in making a spotter from a welding machine. This kind of work is the most difficult. Winding is time consuming, but this step is optional.

The winding is carried out on a ring iron. The secondary wire must be made of aluminum or copper. Between the coils, high-quality insulation should be laid. For this, transformer paper in several layers is suitable.

For maximum reliability, it is impregnated with paraffin.

Pistol make a semi-automatic ... It will require some additions to secure the tool to the paint device. To make pliers, a simple 20 x 20 mm pipe will do. The power wires connecting the transformer and the gun must have the same cross-section.

Alternatively, they must be larger than the cross-section of the tire. Do not use wires that are too long in length. Their maximum size should be 2.5 m. The working cable connecting the transformer and the gun should be made on the basis of a thermally insulated switching cable.

With each heating, this layer will shrink.

Important nuances in design

The greatest difficulties in adapting a transformer are to increase the output current indicator. To do this, experiment with a bus, which is installed instead of the secondary winding. Experience makes it clear that the cross-sectional indicator should be at least 160 sq.

mm. As for the voltage in the bus, then it should not be less than 6 volts. The most important point in the assembly of the transformer is the observance of the optimal insulation of the mains windings. If the overlay was made incorrectly, this will lead to undesirable consequences.

A source: https://tokar.guru/samodelkin/kak-sdelat-spotter-iz-svarochnogo-apparata-svoimi-rukami.html

DIY spotter from a welding machine: how to do it yourself, a homemade spot welding machine

How to make a spotter from a welding machine with your own hands: an algorithm of actions, the purpose of the device

You know that chiropractor is not about bones. The chiropractor is about body work in car repair shops. Removing dents on the body after road accidents is not easy, not quick and very expensive.

This is especially true for cars of the early years of production, because in them the body parts are not attached to bolts, but are tightly welded to special spars. And do not forget about painting the repair area with the capture of all areas of attachment of the body part.

A simple way to straighten and weld the body

It is clear that people have been dealing with the issue of “making it easier and cheaper” for a long time. The method of "pulling" dents was invented a long time ago. The matter is rather primitive: the dent was leveled with a special reverse-action hammer or with the help of a winch and a fastening hook welded to the body.

How to make a spotter from a welding machine with your own hands: an algorithm of actions, the purpose of the deviceBut if welding is carried out with a spotter, then the quality of body straightening is an order of magnitude higher. To begin with, the spotter is a special machine for producing high precision welding. This is called spot welding.

If we talk about professional high-quality straightening of the body, you cannot do without a spotter. But you can save a lot of money without losing the quality of repair work. The method is to make a spotter with your own hands from a welding machine. We go in, read, understand.

How it works: nuances

The first step is to deal with the spotter function. It is needed only for one operation: repairing a crumpled body surface without a general analysis of the entire body. It is most valuable when repairing hard-to-reach parts that need to be straightened during the repair.

A spotter can be made from an inverter, or it can be made from a battery or a transformer - there are several possible electrical schemes. The principle of operation of the device is a reverse action hammer, working in a point way.

Most often, the spotter has the following operating modes:

  1. Short-term mode, in which the guide is fixed in the required local place using special rings.
  2. Welding mode is the main one, which is carried out at minimum power and using carbon electrodes.

Spotter from inverter

A spotter from a welding machine is the most popular option among amateur craftsmen. The reason for this is the power of a homemade spotter: if it is not made from an inverter, it will simply be lower.

This can be reasoned in situations where voltage is passed through the body of a car. This happens when one contact is connected to the body, and the nozzle and a metal rod become the second contact. The device itself consists of two main parts: a thyristor relay and the inverter itself.

How to make a spotter from a welding machine with your own hands: an algorithm of actions, the purpose of the deviceSpotter wiring diagram

Here's what you might need to assemble a home spotter made from an old welding machine:

  • a transformer for controlling a relay, lowering by 12 volts;
  • thyristor 200 volts;
  • relay for 30 amperes;
  • control button;
  • contacts for 220 volts;
  • diode bridge.

A transformer is required without fail: it supplies the thyristor circuit and is connected to the network using a diode bridge. A thyristor relay is also connected there.

How it works

As soon as the start is pressed, the capacitor discharge is immediately connected, the resistor and thyristor are temporarily connected, the alternating voltage is fed through the diodes directly to the transformer, more precisely, to its primary winding.

In the process, the parts and the electrode begin to heat up, melt and weld. As soon as the capacitor is discharged, the thyristor immediately closes with the simultaneous de-energization of the entire winding of the hardware transformer.

Welding ends, capacitor charging continues, which is quite useful for future work.

The thyristor and diode bridge are replaceable parts, they can be replaced with triacs. The main thing is to think carefully about the entire design of your home-made device, because its work must be absolutely accurate and correct, regardless of the size and the money and effort spent on it.

Materials (edit)

To understand how to make a spotter from a welding machine, you need to start with the necessary materials. The thyristor itself does not overheat, only local places near the cable and a metal rod are heated, so it is best that it be made of brass.

How to make a spotter from a welding machine with your own hands: an algorithm of actions, the purpose of the device

It is better to take a cable with a cross-section of 70 mm². For a hammer and a mass, lengths of 1.7 and 2.1 m are quite enough. The secondary transformer winding is wound with a bus with dimensions of 6.4 x 4.0, which is made of copper. The tire can be replaced with an aluminum one.

Two more must be added to the secondary winding. As a result, the apparatus will consist of an aluminum transformer winding of 250 mm², which is five windings of six turns. In this case, the electrode acts as a reverse hammer.

The handle is usually made from a household glue gun. The cable must be found and selected only with a thermal insulation layer.

Functions and characteristics

The spotter functions are as follows:

  • welding of repair washers for joining parts;
  • spot welding with an electrode for pulling the metal of the panel;
  • heating of parts with an electrode followed by cooling.

The main technical characteristics that a homemade spotter from a welding machine should have are as follows:

  • the mains voltage must be 220 volts;
  • AC mains frequency - 56 - 60 Hz;
  • maximum allowable power - 10 kW;
  • maximum operating current - 1300A;
  • voltage for the secondary winding 8 - 9V;
  • productivity - 15%;
  • the pulling condition for the needle is more than 100 kg;
  • traction condition for the washer - 100 kg and more;
  • dimensions of the device 380 mm x 290 mm x 840 mm;
  • structure weight 32 kg.

How to work with a spotter

How to make a spotter from a welding machine with your own hands: an algorithm of actions, the purpose of the deviceElectrical diagram of the device.

The technology of work was invented a long time ago. It is used to repair damaged car doors, body fenders and other hard-to-reach parts of very different localization.

The main thing in the work is to fix the vector of efforts in the right place - to the outside of the working surface and to the deformed area, that is, to the dent. Contact welding with a spotter is carried out with the incoming current, after which the working surface is equal to an inertial hammer or stop.

The next stage is grinding the leveled surface. During work, in no case do we forget about grounding the device and the obligatory disconnection of the negative terminal from the battery.

After thorough cleaning of the surface of the damaged area, a grounding contact is attached to it, and special fasteners are also welded. Damage zone - dents are pulled out. The next step is to remove the welded elements with the help of rotation, the site is prepared for the putty process.

As for the rules of operation and safety, it is quite enough to follow the general rules. Then you will succeed.

A source: https://tutsvarka.ru/oborudovanie/spotter-svoimi-rukami

How to make a spotter with your own hands - a diagram, video, photos and working examples

Almost every home craftsman can independently assemble such a useful device as a spotter. To solve this problem, it is not at all necessary to seriously understand electronics and have the appropriate experience. And the components that are necessary for the manufacture of such a device are not difficult to find: for this, it is enough to delve into your workshop, in the garage, look in the market or from friends.

Factory spotter. Our task is to make an inexpensive analogue with our own hands.

Factory spotter. Our task is to make an inexpensive analogue with our own hands.

Diagram for assembling a homemade spotter

If you are going to make a spotter with your own hands, you need to understand the schematic diagram of such a device.

The most important element of the spotter is the welding transformer (T2), the voltage is applied to its primary winding, passing through the diode bridge. In the electrical circuit of the second diagonal of such a bridge, there is a thyristor, which is controlled by the voltage supplied from another transformer (T1), which has a low power.

Spotter schematic diagram

Spotter schematic diagram

Such a scheme works according to the following principle: when the spotter is turned on, voltage is applied to the transformer T1. It is converted and goes from its secondary winding to the diode bridge, then passes through the closed contacts of the "Impulse" switch to the capacitor C1, which begins to charge. Since the thyristor is closed at this time, no electric current flows to the welding transformer.

To start this transformer and receive a welding current on its secondary winding, it is necessary to change the position of the "Impulse" switch, which will disconnect the capacitor C1 from charging and connect it to the thyristor control circuit. The current generated as a result of the discharge of the capacitor preliminarily passes through the resistance (R1), which is responsible for the operating modes of the apparatus, and enters the control electrode of the thyristor, which leads to its opening.

After the thyristor opens, a short-term pulse arrives at the primary winding of the welding transformer, the characteristics of which (duration and current strength) depend on the parameters of the capacitor C1 and resistance R1, as well as on their ratio. As a result, the secondary winding of the transformer will give out a powerful pulse current, the strength of which can be in the range of 300-500 A, the duration of such a pulse is 0.1 sec.

This duration can be adjusted, for which the variable resistance R1 is responsible. After the capacitor C1 is completely discharged, the control thyristor will close and the electrical circuit of the device will return to its original state. In order for the capacitor C1 to start charging again, it is necessary to change the position of the "Impulse" switch.

Spotter control circuit

Spotter control circuit (click to enlarge)

A homemade spotter is made with the following components at its disposal:

  • a transformer that will create a welding current;
  • a transformer that will provide power to all elements of the electrical circuit of the apparatus;
  • an assembly of diodes designed for a voltage of at least 12V;
  • diode bridge (V5 – V8);
  • thyristor (PTL-50);
  • variable resistor with a nominal value of 100 ohms.

It is quite difficult to find a ready-made transformer that provides the formation of the welding current. It is much easier to assemble such a device with your own hands. The magnetic circuit, which is the basis of such a transformer, must have a working section of at least 400 mm 2, and its dimensions are calculated taking into account the placement of the windings.

Types of construction of magnetic cores of transformers

Types of construction of magnetic cores of transformers and their dimensions for calculating the cross-sectional area

The working cross-section of the magnetic circuit of the transformer that you are going to install on your spotter, as well as the dimensions of its windows, are selected independently. For the W-shaped core, the primary winding of the transformer, consisting of 200 turns, is made of a wire with a cross section of 2.5 mm 2... The secondary winding has 7 turns, for which a wire with a cross section of 50 mm is used 2or a bus of the corresponding section with insulation.

To protect your spotter from sudden failure, and yourself from electrical injuries, the primary and secondary windings of the transformer must be insulated with each other. For this purpose, you can use cardboard, varnished cloth or several layers of paper impregnated with paraffin. The length of the outgoing ends of the secondary winding of the transformer should provide for the possibility of its connection to the output terminals, and the primary one - for connection to the electrical circuit of the apparatus. It is advisable to impregnate the transformer that you made with shellac.

Ring core transformer

Transformer with a ring core: primary - 255 turns of wire with a cross section of 1.8 mm, secondary - 7 turns of copper bus 6.5x4 in three layers (75 mm 2)

The electric circuit of the spotter contains a supply transformer, the voltage on the secondary winding of which is 12 V. You can choose any transformer that meets the above parameter. To control the presence of voltage on such a device, equip it with an additional winding.

If difficulties arise with the search for a TPL-50 thyristor, then you can choose any other that corresponds to the following parameters: the reverse voltage value is at least 220 V, the forward pulse current is at least 50 A. To assemble the diode bridge that the spotter is equipped with, you can use any diodes that meet the following characteristics: reverse voltage - at least 220 V, forward current - at least 50 A.

To design a spotter with your own hands, you will need to find a variable resistor with a nominal value of 100 ohms. Such a resistor can have any power dissipation. The capacitor, which will accumulate an electrical discharge, must be electrolytic, with a capacity of 1000 μF and a voltage of 25 V.

Spotter variant with two transformers

Spotter variant with two transformers

Homemade spotter body and other components

Even if you make a spotter with your own hands, you need to take care of the case for it. First of all, you need to make a base for your equipment, for which you can use a plate of dielectric material. It is important to make the dimensions of the finished base so that it can accommodate all the spotter's components, and provide easy access to the places where the installation will be carried out. To do this, you can first prepare a drawing by drawing all the structural elements of the device to scale.

To protect all the internal elements of your homemade spotter and give it an aesthetic appearance, it is convenient to use the case from an old microwave oven or welding machine. If you plan to carry your spotter frequently, then you need to evenly distribute the weight of its internal components and provide reliable fasteners for a belt or carrying handle. In addition, small wheels can be mounted on the lower part of the base of the device, which will also make the device more mobile.

A variant of the body of a homemade spotter

A variant of the body of a homemade spotter

After you make a spotter with your own hands, you need to equip it with additional components, which include:

  • pistol, which is the working body of the apparatus;
  • two welding cables;
  • inopuller, also called a reverse hammer.

When choosing welding cables, it is very important to choose the right cross-section. To do this, you can make a simple calculation: for 10 A of the maximum permissible current that the spotter gives out, there should be 1 mm 2section of the cable. For the mass, use a cable that does not exceed 1.5 m in length, for a worker - no more than 2.5 m.If you neglect these requirements and use cables of longer length, this will lead to significant losses in the strength of the welding current, which will negatively affect the quality performing welding works.

It is necessary to securely fasten the connecting elements at the ends of the cables. These can be terminals for threaded connections or devices that provide a quick connection to the corresponding terminals on the device itself and its working body - the gun. On the reverse side of the ground cable, you can install a quick-clamping element (crocodile) or equip it with a clamp for threaded fastening.

Spotter's working pistol

As mentioned above, the main working body of the spotter is the pistol. If you plan to constantly use a homemade spotter in your work, then it is better to purchase a factory pistol. If you need such an apparatus for irregular use, then you can assemble a working body for it from available tools.

Spotter pistol complete with reverse hammer

Spotter pistol complete with reverse hammer

As such improvised means, an assembly glue gun or a working part from a semi-automatic welding machine is usually used. You can make a comfortable and reliable handle for a homemade pistol from getinax or PCB 12-14 mm thick by cutting out two identical rectangular parts from them. In one of these parts, a recess is made, in which the bracket is located, which is necessary for attaching the electrode. Here you can also place a light bulb, a button to turn on the backlight and a switch that is responsible for sending a pulse.

It is very responsible to approach the manufacture of the bracket in which the welding electrode will be attached. Such a bracket is made from a copper pipe of a square or rectangular section. The electrode itself is made from a solid copper rod, the diameter of which should be 8–10 mm. It is very convenient if the design of your homemade pistol is such that it will be possible to replace the electrode in it without disassembling.

To connect the gun to the spotter itself, you must use a welding and control cable, which must have 5 cores with a cross-section of 0.75-1 mm 2each one. Three cores of the control cable are connected to the "Impulse" switch, two - to the lamp, which is responsible for the backlight and its switch. The end of the welding cable is carefully stripped and sealed into the hole in the bracket.

Inopuller (reverse hammer) for a homemade spotter

If you figure out how to make a spotter, then making a reverse hammer for it with your own hands will not be a big problem for you. Do not be afraid to waste time working on such a device, because factory models of inopullers are quite expensive.

As a basis for the manufacture of such a device, you can take an assembly gun. The part into which the cylinder with polyurethane foam or sealant is inserted is cut off from it. On the lid released after that, it is necessary to weld three rods with a diameter of 6-10 mm, which will act as racks. A ring made of a bar with the same section is welded to the free ends of the racks. The diameter of the ring, which after installation must be wrapped with several layers of insulating tape, which excludes its welding to the surface to be leveled, should be approximately 100 mm.

At the rod of the assembly gun, it is also necessary to cut off its curved part and stop. Instead of the cut-off stop, a fastener is welded to which the cable coming from the stopper will be connected. An M10 threaded bolt and two nuts can be used as such an attachment. The cut off part of the stem must be sharpened, giving it a tapered shape with a tip diameter of 3 mm. To make such a simple device, you will need about an hour (or less, if you first watch the video of this process).

When working on a spotter (especially on a homemade one), you should observe safety measures. If you straighten car body elements with such a device, do not forget to disconnect the battery terminals.
Inopuller for the spotter from the assembly gun

Inopuller for the spotter from the assembly gun

In addition to the spotter itself, you will need special washers for work. They are welded with this device to the surface to be straightened using the spot welding technology. You can also make such washers and other devices for work with your own hands.

Making a spotter from a welding machine

The above scheme for making a spotter is convenient to use if you have a serial or home-made welding transformer. In this case, you will only need to select diodes and a thyristor with the required parameters for its retrofitting.

The network describes a lot of options for making a spotter according to other schemes. Home craftsmen demonstrate both fairly functional and powerful devices, including those with auto start, and the simplest spotters, assembled on the basis of transformers from microwave ovens, and even battery devices equipped with a retractor relay from the starter, which regulates the process of supplying pulses. Inverter welding machines and semiautomatic devices are also used.

The video below describes examples of making a spotter from a welding machine.

Spotter functionality for serial models

Spotters, mass-produced in production conditions, have a number of demanded functions. Among them:

  • the possibility of welding repair washers;
  • welding of a metal electrode followed by pulling out the metal of the part;
  • the use of the apparatus complete with graphite electrodes, which make it possible to carry out metal deposition (heating and subsequent cooling);
  • ease of maintenance, ease of use;
  • two modes for performing welding work - constant switching on (in this mode, a carbon electrode is used) and short-term switching, which can be adjusted in time (this mode is used for welding repair washers or a metal electrode);
  • equipped with a forced cooling system (the design of the device also provides for a thermostat, the function of which is to turn off the spotter when it overheats, as well as turn it on when it cools to the required temperature).
One of the variations of factory spotters

One of the variations of factory spotters and related accessories for various purposes

Characteristics of serially produced spotters

Serial spotter models produced by modern manufacturers have the following technical characteristics.

  • The device operates on an electrical network, the voltage value of which is 220 V.
  • The frequency of the alternating current in the network from which the spotter is powered is 50-60 Hz.
  • The maximum power of the spotter is 10 kW.
  • The maximum current value at which welding work can be performed is 1300 A.
  • The voltage obtained from the secondary winding of the apparatus is 7.8-9 V.
  • The spotter timer allows you to set the time in the range of 0-1.2 seconds.
  • It is possible to use two welding modes: spot, in which a timer is used, and continuous, in which both welding and tempering can be performed.
  • With various types of welding, the productivity of the apparatus has the following values: 15% - spot welding of metal parts, performed at the maximum value of the output power; 75% - carbon welding performed at minimum power output.
  • The pulling force when using a metal electrode is more than 100 kg.
  • The pulling force when using the mounting washer is more than 100 kg.
An example of another homemade product

An example of another homemade product

Methods of working with a spotter

The methods of working with the use of a spotter, which allows you to straighten the deformed parts of the car body, even those located in hard-to-reach places, have been worked out by many specialists who are engaged in body repair. Various elements of the car body, subjected to deformation, can be corrected with the help of such a device: doors, sills, fenders and other parts. The principle of work with a spotter is based on the fact that the force it creates is directed to the outside of the deformed surface.

When a welding current is applied to the electrode of the machine, a connection with a deformed surface occurs. After that, with the help of an inertial hammer or a special stop, the deformed section is leveled and takes on its original state. The final stages of this process are thorough cleaning of the repaired surface and its grinding. More information about working as a spotter can be found in the video below.

The technology of work performed with a spotter consists of the following stages:

  • cleaning of the deformed section of the car body, in which all coatings must be removed from the metal surface;
  • connecting ground wire to the car body;
  • the connection of fasteners with a deformable section of the body, carried out using spot welding;
  • capture of the fastening element using special tools and devices;
  • stretching the deformed section of the body and giving it its original shape;
  • removing the fastener from the body surface;
  • cleaning of the straightened surface and its preparation for painting.
In order to skillfully handle a spotter, you must have the skills to perform welding, as well as strictly follow the rules for operating this device. If you adhere to these recommendations, then the elimination of deformations on the car body will not take much time and effort and will be performed with high quality.

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How to make a spotter with your own handsSpotter is a machine designed for spot welding. This equipment is widely used for straightening and car body restoration. Due to the simplicity of the design of such devices, it will not be difficult to make a spotter with your own hands.

It is only necessary to use a high-quality inverter, on the basis of which the welding equipment is made.

Application features

How to make a spotterIf initially spotters were used only when performing various bodywork with cars, today, thanks to the versatility of this equipment, it is possible to use it in everyday life. for quality spot welding ... With the help of self-made welding machines, all kinds of metal structures, fences from fittings are performed, the surfaces of body panels are straightened without the need to disassemble the skin.

The main purpose of the spotter is precisely repair and restoration of car body panels ... In the case when it is impossible to align the parts from the inside, and their dismantling presents certain difficulties, spotters are used that allow high-quality welding, which in the future will be perfectly protected from corrosion.

Principle of operation

How to make a spotterToday, there are several options for electric spotter circuits, which are made from an inverter, a transformer and an old battery. Self-made devices operate on the principle of a hammer, allowing you to pull out body elements without local painting, and the quality of spot welding when using a working gun allows you to ensure the most reliable and durable fixation of body elements.

Homemade spotter has several modes of operation:

  • Welding mode, using a carbon electrode, when all work is done at minimum power.
  • Short-term mode, in which the guide is fixed with the help of special rings and the metal is pulled out during its point heating.

The most popular today are models of spot welding machines, which are made on the basis of an inverter. Such devices have a special additional gun, with the help of which a point heating of the metal elements to be connected is carried out.

Inverter based device

Homemade spot welding machines, made on the basis of a welding inverter, are simple in design, have the power necessary to work with most metals and can be easily made by hand.

The simplest spotters can consist of the following elements:

  • Inverter housing.
  • Cable.
  • Sharp rod or electrode.
  • Stadder pistol.

The easiest way to make such an apparatus for resistance welding is using inverters, to which a welding gun is attached through a cable. You can use both ready-made purchased stadder pistols, and make them yourself on the basis of a metal sealant pistol.

Advantages of self-made spotters:

  • Spotter from the welding machineThe ability to pull out metal parts without damaging the original paint layer.
  • Ease of use.
  • Versatility of application.
  • Possibility of performing metal upsetting using graphite electrodes.
  • The presence of two or more modes of welding.
  • Simplicity of design.
  • Affordable cost of the components used.

You can find various schemes for the manufacture of inverter spotters. You can choose both the simplest models that are intended for their domestic use, and professional installations that combine power, versatility and advanced capabilities.

For self-assembly of the device, you will need the following components:

  • Do-it-yourself spotter from a welding machineContact group for 220 volts.
  • Diode bridge.
  • Control relay for 30A.
  • A transformer that lowers the voltage by 12 volts.
  • Thyristor 200 Volt.
  • Control buttons.

Spotter from swarapparatConnection to the network is carried out using a diode bridge and a transformer. The thyristor circuit and the contact diode group in the inverter increases the voltage, after which the current is fed through the cable to the working welding gun.

The used transistor diode unit must withstand the maximum output current, which reaches 1500 Amperes. The power of the output welding current can be controlled using a bus, which is installed instead of the secondary winding.

Despite the seeming complexity, even the initial skills of reading electrical circuits and working with radio components will be enough for the independent manufacture of spotters, which can be used not only in everyday life, but also for performing various kinds of bodywork.

It is only necessary to select a high-quality scheme for the execution of the device for resistance welding, and then fully adhere to the documentation available on hand.

Case and cables

Do-it-yourself spotter from a welding machineThe box of a self-made spotter can be made from scrap metal materials. Easiest to use for this job case from an old computer ... The presence of a working fan will be an additional plus, which will reduce the temperature, allowing you to improve the operating time of the device without shutting it down for mandatory cooling.

Inside the case, it is necessary to install several fans that operate from 12 Volts and allow high-quality cooling of the power section of the inverter. The easiest way is to use computer fans that are directly connected to the control unit and work continuously or on a signal from temperature sensors.

The presence of compact fans inside the case allows to extend the continuous operation of the device at maximum power ratings.

It is best to use welding cables ready-made, purchased with a cross-section of at least 1 millimeter per 10 Amperes of power of maximum current indicators. For the mass, cables with a length of no more than 150 centimeters are used, and the working wire is no longer than 250 centimeters. Otherwise, there may be a loss of current strength, which adversely affects the operation of the device and the quality of welding.

At both ends of the cable, threaded connections are attached to fix the welding gun and connect it to the inverter. Due attention should be paid to the quality of the connection, since the losses of the welding current depend on this. On the reverse side of the power cable for the mass, a quick-clamping clamp is installed or terminals with threaded fasteners are used.

Execution of a working gun

How to make a spotter from a welding machine with your own handsThe main working element of the spotter is a welding gun , which allows for spot heating of the metal. If you plan to constantly use the equipment, then it is preferable to purchase a ready-made factory pistol, which is distinguished by its simplicity of design, reliability and durability. If the spotter is made for occasional use, then it is quite possible to assemble a working pistol from improvised devices.

The easiest way to do it is from an assembly glue gun, to which a reliable and comfortable handle made of textolite or other non-conductive materials is attached. In the glue gun, appropriate holes are made for the guides, to which the used electrode is subsequently fixed. The cable from the inverter is connected to the gun and when the trigger is pulled, a short powerful pulse is applied.

The holding bracket, which fixes the welding electrode, is made of a copper tube of rectangular or square cross section. Copper rods with a diameter of 8-10 millimeters are used as electrodes.

You can find various schemes and options for manufacturing a resistance welding gun, which involve changing the electrode without disassembling the completed device.

Reverse hammer assembly

Do-it-yourself spotter from a welding machineOne of the advantages of using a spotter is the quick change of working tools , which expands the functionality of such equipment. To perform straightening and welding bodywork, a reverse hammer is used, or as it is also called in another way, inopuller. Making the simplest reverse hammer with your own hands is not difficult. It is carried out on the basis of a metal assembly gun.

From the old assembly gun, a part is cut off that holds the cylinder with sealant and polyurethane foam. Three rods with a diameter of no more than 10 millimeters are welded onto the vacant site. To the free ends of the rods, a ring is fixed by welding, which is made from a rod with a cross section of 6-10 millimeters. The diameter of the ring should not exceed 100 millimeters.

At the pistol rod, the stops and the curved part are cut off. Instead, a fastener is welded to which the cable from the welding inverter is subsequently connected. The cable can be secured with two nuts and an M10 threaded bolt.

With the help of the hammer, high quality spot welding and straightening work can be carried out without damaging the original paintwork.

If desired, you can purchase ready-made reverse hammers, which differ in the diameter of the working body and are designed for use on spotters with different powers.

Spotter from the welding machine

Do-it-yourself spotter from svarapparatThe easiest way is to make a spotter from a welding machine with your own hands. In this case, you only need to equip the unit with a thyristor and a diode with the required parameters, which will allow for pulse welding. Additionally, the welding machine can be equipped with a solenoid relay, which allows you to adjust the power of the impulse.

The spotter from the welding machine is carried out in full accordance with the existing scheme, and all that remains to be done is purchase or make your own working gun and reverse hammer ... Separate schemes of spotter execution imply the ability to switch operating modes, when the inverter used can operate both a classic welding machine and a device for spot welding.

Making a spotter with your own hands will not be particularly difficult. Such a device for resistance spot welding can be made from an inverter or an old welding machine. It is only necessary to have on hand a high-quality scheme according to which the assembly of the device will be carried out. It is possible to make used working guns and reverse hammers from tools for spraying polyurethane foam and sealant. Making such equipment with your own hands will significantly save on the purchase of industrially manufactured equipment, while the functionality of homemade equipment will not differ from expensive purchased units.

1. What you need

2. Stages of work

We collect the current source

If you have basic knowledge in the field of electrical engineering, it will not be difficult to assemble a spotter with your own hands. They always start with working out the wiring diagram. Below is a description of its components and a visual representation.

The basis for obtaining the welding current is transformer (on the scheme T2). You can take the old one from the microwave or from the lighting system. The main thing is that its winding is intact. If it is damaged, then it is necessary to perform a new primary winding with a magnetic core - 200 turns of 2.5 sq. mm. Perform the mains winding on their own insulated cable ... Preferably a cross section of 50 sq. mm - from 3 to 7 turns. It is connected to the mains through diode bridge (on the V5-V8 diagram) - you can take the diode bridge from the car. The thyristor of the electronic relay is included in its diagonal (in the diagram V9). Relay used for 12V - a relay from any vehicle will do.

Mains winding transformer

Another important component of the circuit is auxiliary transformer , from which the thyristor control circuit is powered (T1 in the diagram). You can install a conventional electric transformer, which is used when connecting halogen lamps.

Auxiliary transformer

Also in the circuit there is a switch for supplying power with a voltage of 220 V (in the diagram S1), a capacitor (C1), a switch (S3), a rectifier bridge (V1-V4), a variable resistor (R1). These components can be purchased from a radio store or removed from unwanted devices if they are in working order.

Spotter scheme for welding

According to this diagram, the sequence of operation of all components can be described. The switch closes the contacts, which contributes to the supply of current with a voltage of 220 V to the primary winding of the auxiliary transformer, the thyristor control unit. The charge of the capacitor begins, which is connected to the rectifier bridge through the closed contacts of the switch. While the thyristor is closed, the main transformer is de-energized - no current is supplied to its primary winding. To start working, you need to press the switch button, then the charged capacitor is connected to the control electrode of the thyristor through a variable resistor. Due to this, the mains voltage will go to the primary winding of the main transformer. And in its secondary winding, a powerful current pulse will appear, which is necessary for spot welding. To regulate the duration of these pulses, a time relay is built into the circuit - the maximum duration can be 0.1 sec. During this short period, the current in the secondary winding of the transformer can be 350 - 500 A. As soon as the capacitor is discharged, the device returns to its original state - the operating cycle ends.

Important to remember! When making a transformer yourself and making electrical connections, the winding insulation should be done well. After all, the safety of equipment operation will depend on this. It is recommended to insulate the primary windings of the transformer with varnished cloth or paper soaked in paraffin - at least 5 - 6 layers.

If you don't want to collect everything piece by piece, there is an easier option. The old welding inverter is taken as a basis - it already has the entire electrical circuit. You will need to modify it so that the machine can weld in spot welding mode, as described above. You need a 200 V thyristor, a transformer with a voltage drop to 122 V to control a relay from a button, a relay with a current of 30 A, a diode bridge. You also need a 220 V contact group and a control button. It is necessary to increase the amperage delivered by the inverter. To do this, remove the secondary winding from the coil and make 2 tires from it (cross-section at least 160 sq. Mm, and the voltage value is 6 V). The tires are insulated with electrical tape and masking tape in this order: a layer of electrical tape, a layer of adhesive tape, a layer of electrical tape. Then they are wound on a transformer in several turns. This solution helps to increase the output amperage up to 1500 A, which is necessary for pulse welding.

We carry out the corpus

The layout of all circuit elements is done in the case. You can take a metal box from old equipment or weld a new one, specially sized to fit all the parts inside. For the frame, for example, a 25 mm metal corner is suitable, and the walls can be sheathed with steel sheets no more than 1 mm thick. Air vents can be cut in the side wall for cooling. It is good if the lid or one of the walls is removable. Then a self-made spotter can be disassembled for revision or replacement of electrical components.

An example of the placement of parts in the case

Advice : To fix the electrical components in the housing, you can take metal strips and put them on the screws.

Before assembling and installing the cover, be sure to test the spotter, measure the amperage and power to ensure correct operation.

We connect the welding gun

So, the welding power source is assembled and meets the required operating parameters. Now you need to attach a tool to it. You can buy a ready-made electrode console and pliers, or make a working tool yourself. For this purpose, many craftsmen use the frame of a construction gun, in which you can fix the electrode and connect a wire to it. It turns out a device that is quite suitable for one-sided welding. It is connected to a power source with a flexible cable (cross-section of at least 50 sq. Mm). And the length should be no more than 2.5 m. In addition, you will need a mass cable. You can buy it ready-made - along with the terminal. Its length should not exceed 1.5 m.

This article outlines just a few ideas for assembling a spotter with your own hands. Enthusiastic craftsmen are experimenting with other methods of creating such an apparatus, for example, using a battery as a current source, making double-sided pliers for electrodes, etc. Are you really on fire with this idea? Then we advise you to study the forums, watch videos and photos of the finished equipment. Indeed, it is quite problematic to accommodate all the knowledge and experience of craftsmen within the framework of one publication. Our article will prepare you for a deeper study of the topic. If you spend enough time gathering information and preparing, you will have a working homemade spotter. And you can order the necessary tool on our website.

3.Useful articles

How to work with spot welding?

Spot welding consumables SPOT

What are the cables and wires

Spotter (spot from English - place, point) is a device for spot welding, it is actively used in the process of straightening a car. Bodywork requires the performer to be extremely precise and to recreate the original geometry of the element. A special tool is needed to create the perfect look. Straighteners often use spotters that help restore the original state of the part without dismantling. The device is relatively expensive, but it is possible to make a spotter with your own hands.

Features of using a spotter

The device in work on straightening is used for:

  • body surface adjustments without dismantling;
  • welding of body elements.

The device is especially convenient and effective for influencing areas or parts of a machine with a hidden or inconvenient location. Spotter is used when it is impossible to use alternative straightening methods due to limited access to the damaged area.

The principle of operation of the tool comes down to several main stages:

  1. Cleaning the damaged area from paintwork, putty, primer residues, etc.
  2. Welding special fasteners to the deformed area.
  3. An inertial hammer is hooked onto the retainer, the metal is leveled with it.

A useful property of the device is the ability to warm up the part. In the process of heating and cooling, shape and stiffness are restored faster and more efficiently.

You can do it yourself if you know all the subtleties.

Sometimes, when it becomes necessary to perform urgent welding work, the master cannot do without a special apparatus.

How does a spotter work?

The device uses an inverter, but also uses a battery and a transformer for the spotter. The tool is based on the principle of a hammer, it acts on one point, the only difference is the opposite direction of the effect.

Standard example of work:

  • a reverse hammer is a guide and a weighting agent on it, which is attached to the deformed area;
  • the heavy washer moves along the guide in the opposite direction to the dent. The tool provides flattening of the metal in points.

A standard electric straightener can operate in two modes:

  • short. The guide is fixed in the desired place with rings;
  • welding. For welding, the installation is transferred to the minimum power indicators and a carbon electrode is inserted.

DIY spotter based on inverters

There are a number of schemes according to which a homemade spotter is made. A spotter from a do-it-yourself welding machine is the most famous and easiest method for making an installation. A drawing of a spotter from an inverter is common in the network in various modifications, the popularity is due to the high power of the installation.

Resistance welding is a welding method carried out using an electric current.

Do-it-yourself spotter assembly from the welding machine

The device is classified as a type of contact welding; no pliers are required for use. According to the specified parameter, the spotter is comparable to electric arc welding, where the current passes through the car body. The "minus" terminal is fixed on the body, and the nozzle and the stem will be used as a contact for "plus".

Inverter spotter circuit

A homemade spotter with your own hands, which is assembled from a semiautomatic device, requires the use of two main spare parts:

  • thyristor relay;
  • welding inverter.

It is easy to assemble the simplest spotter with your own hands if you have:

  • transformer, it is designed to reduce the voltage to 12 V, it must be installed to control the relay through a button;
  • thyristor 200 V;
  • relay 30 A;
  • diode bridge;
  • switch of contacts for 220 V;
  • buttons to adjust the work.

The diode bridge is connected to the network before the transformer. A thyristor from a relay is connected to the bridge. The transformer installation is useful for powering the control branch in the thyristor circuit.

DIY homemade spotter

Inverter spotter circuit

A do-it-yourself spotter from a semiautomatic device has the following scheme:

  1. When the control button S3 is pressed, the discharge of the capacitor C1 is activated, the resistor R1 is briefly activated together with the thyristor V9.
  2. The voltage is supplied to the transformer winding through the D232 diode block.
  3. The process of welding the body by means of the electrode is started.
  4. When the capacitor C1 loses its charge, the thyristor closes and the voltage from the transformer is redirected.
  5. After the winding is de-energized, the welding process ends, now the capacitor C1 goes into the energy storage mode from the transformer T1.

If, before making a spotter with your own hands, it was not possible to find a diode bridge and a thyristor, it is possible to replace them with triacs.

For the high-quality operation of a spotter based on a machine, it is important to carefully consider the design and layout of the device. Even cheap devices must meet the minimum installation requirements.

Materials (edit)

A spotter from a welding machine will require materials and tools to create the installation. You need sheet metal 35-40 cm2, since you cannot make a spotter without it due to the risk of overheating. The temperature on home-made equipment rises only in places after the cable; additionally, strong heating occurs on an iron rod with a diameter of 16 mm. It is preferable to use brass to reduce the stem temperature.

A spotter from a welding machine can be made with minimal costs in terms of materials and time

A welding transformer for a spotter, designed for spot work, is somewhat different from the classic design

The characteristic of the power cable is determined depending on the power of the spotter, but it is preferable to choose 70 mm2 or more. It is better to take a wire for ground with a length of 1.7 m, and for connecting a hammer - 2.1 m.It is advisable to equip a spotter with your own hands from a battery with a control with pulses through a thyristor PM-40.

Initially, the outer winding of the transformer is applied using a copper bus with dimensions 6, 5, 4 on the 3rd layer of the winding. When using a battery, it is allowed to replace the wire with an aluminum one. Two more are applied to the second winding. At the end of the work, the battery-based equipment should be made of aluminum or copper with an area of ​​250 mm2 (5 windings with 6 turns each).

It is important to pay attention not only to the functionality of the installation, but also to the ease of use. The design of the inertial hammer creates conditions for safe and easy use of the machine. The spare part of the glue gun is mainly used.

A layer of thermal insulation and a wire for switching must be applied to the power cable. Thermal insulation should be applied with a margin, since when heated, it contracts and the area can become bare.

Key features and specifications of the spotter

Regardless of the type of device: factory (used in industry) or homemade design, they have the same functions:

  • welding of body elements using repair washers;
  • spot welding with a metal electrode. The pin is selected strong so that with its help it is possible to pull out the body;
  • the ability to heat body parts by means of a carbon-type electrode and sharply cool the base. This function contributes to the creation of metal precipitation;
  • due to two modes of operation, the efficiency and ease of use of the device are improved. When the first mode is activated, stable operation occurs, it is intended for use with a carbon electrode. The second mode implies a short activation, the activity time is set manually. Used together with an iron electrode, often used to install washers;
They must be made by hand based on high current and low voltage.

Spotters for spot welding should be limited by the time it takes to weld the part

The device has a built-in cooling system and a thermostat for deactivation in case of strong heating. Switching off and on is performed automatically when the set marks are reached.

Basic characteristics of spotters:

  • the voltage in the power supply network for the correct operation of the installation is 220 V (sometimes 380 V);
  • AC frequency - from 50 to 60 Hz;
  • maximum power of the device - 10 kW;
  • current strength at maximum load - 1300 A;
  • voltage in the 2nd layer of the welding machine winding - 8-9V;
  • active time range - from 0 to 1.2 s;
  • 2 operating modes: with timer activation (for spot welding) and continuous operation in standard mode and tempering;
  • productivity when setting the spot welding mode at a ratio with the maximum output power - 15%;
  • productivity in the case of using coal welding in relation to the maximum output power - 75%;
  • force to break the needle - over 100 kg;
  • tractive effort in relation to the washer - over 100 kg;
  • dimensions of the structure - 380x290x840 mm;
  • weight - 32 kg.

How to weld parts with a spotter?

Today, a unified technology for using the installation has been developed, which is used by all professional straighteners. Most often, the technique is appropriate for working with deformed parts that are in hard-to-reach places. Such welding is used for straightening damaged fenders, doors, pillars. The spotter will come in handy for correcting any surface that needs a leveling force in the opposite direction.

You can make a spotter for spot welding and other devices for other types of contact welding with your own hands

Resistance welding needs a short voltage pulse

Spot welding uses a transmitted current to create adhesion to the part. Further, a stop or an inertial hammer is attached to the site. The listed manipulations provide fast and high-quality body restoration.

After bringing the body element to its original state, the hook is removed and the surface is cleaned. Grinding is necessary due to the presence of metal residues on the body from welding, otherwise it will not be possible to install a smooth surface.

Spotter technology:

  1. The damaged area of ​​the part is cleaned of the entire coating, a high-quality contact with the metal must be created.
  2. A grounding contact is connected to the cleaned place.
  3. Weld the fasteners for the hook of the tools.
  4. With the help of metal leveling tools, they are hooked onto the retainer.
  5. Stretch the area until the original state is restored or close to it.
  6. The attached toe is torn off manually in a circular motion.
  7. The surface is cleaned until the smooth state is restored and prepared for puttying and painting.

By the type of work, a spotter is similar to a welding machine; in order to use it, it is desirable to have basic welding skills. In the process of manipulation, it is imperative to follow the rules of operation and personal protection. The device is useful for all types of restoration work with a car body, where a point effect is required.

Expert advice

Experienced bodybuilders recommend:

  • keep an eye on the grounding of the case - this is a mandatory safety measure. Disconnect the minus terminal from the battery;
  • supplement the spotter circuit with auxiliary circuit elements to prevent overload and increase power;
  • if you want to straighten the power elements with the apparatus, give the auto choice to more powerful devices. A steel bar is installed in them instead of an electrode.

It is not difficult to create a spotter with your own hands in the presence of all the materials and time, only it is important to think over the location and type of circuit elements. The simplest device allows you to straighten a car in the garage, but it will not be enough in production.

Reading time: 8 minutes

Most modern service stations use spotters for body repair - compact devices that can fix many body defects in the form of dents or potholes. Also, a spotter can be found in the garage of a private master or a summer cottage craftsman who independently repairs his car. A spotter is an extremely useful thing both in the household and in the workshop.

factory spotter

In this article we will tell you what a spotter is and how to make a spotter from a welding machine with your own hands. You will also find out how expedient it is to assemble a homemade spotter and what advantages it has over factory devices.

general information

Spotter is a welding machine used in body repair. In essence, the spotter is very similar to spot welding, but outwardly they are two completely different devices. Spot welding has two metal electrodes between which sheet metal is placed. In the case of the spotter, the technology is different. Let's take a closer look at it.

The spotter has two leads: ground and a wire with a working "gun". The mass must be attached to the car body (do not forget to get the battery out of the car in advance). At the end of the "pistol" there is a special lock, where you can install a special nozzle. When a button is pressed on the working "gun", the welding current starts to flow. During the process, the weld spot begins to gradually heat up. The resistance increases and the metal begins to melt in a certain area. At the same time, the rest of the body does not overheat. The metal is stuck, which can then be pulled out.

Let's explain in a simpler way. The spotter does not heat the entire part, but only a specific point (as is the case with spot welding). Heating is small, slightly less than the melting point of the metal. The fastening nozzle is pressed against the metal surface and, at the moment of resistance, it reliably attaches, so that you can then pull the same dent in the opposite direction. Later, the attachment can be easily detached from the metal.

There is both heat and effort from spot welding. Heating is carried out by the apparatus, and the effort is carried out by the master, who presses the nozzle to the metal. Therefore, this type of welding is not called spot welding, but resistance welding.

See also: Do-it-yourself spot welding from the microwave

There are two types of spotters: inverter and transformer. A transformer spotter can be made at home from a transformer. But the inverter spotter can only be assembled at the factory. Since its construction uses complex, expensive components.

How to make a spotter

To make a working spotter with your own hands from a welding machine, you will need a working transformer. Finding a transformer is not such a difficult task. It can be obtained from an old semiautomatic device / inverter, or purchased from hands on online bulletin boards. The best option is to find a transformer with a burnt secondary winding.

Let's get to the point. First you need to remove the secondary winding if the transformer has two of them. Next, wind a couple of turns of copper wire on the primary winding and use a tester to determine how many turns you need to wind for 1 Volt. In our case, you need 1.5 turns or 3 turns per 2 Volts, respectively. With a tester, we measured the voltage and divided it into the number of turns.

Now you need to make a bus from the secondary winding. It can be wound from the transformer itself. In our case, the bus is 40mm2. We stretched it with a hydraulic tool to make a straight, flat tire.

The tire we use will have a cross section of 160mm2 after it is folded 4 times. In this case, after winding, we will get about 5-6 Volts. That's enough for us. Cut the tire into four pieces and join. For the connection, you can use a fabric insulating tape. It all took us about 6 rolls of duct tape. The insulation itself is best done in several layers. For example, first duct tape, then masking tape, then duct tape again.

Now the tires need to be wound around the transformer. This is not an easy task, you can use the tools at hand. Please note that it will not work to make a tight winding, but this is not scary.

At this stage, you will most likely run into a lack of power problem. The theory will not help here. You need to try and error yourself to find a solution to this problem. In our case, the best solution was to connect the wires on the primary winding in the sequence 1 + 8 and 4 + 5. Before that, we installed a 16A semi-automatic switch on the connection so that the wiring did not burn out. The power section of the spotter is ready.

homemade spotter 3

Assembling the starting device

Our spotter will work in manual mode. You will need a 12V transformer from an old tube TV, a 30A relay (you can take it from a Zhiguli), a diode bridge ("pill"), a 220V contactor and a button (you can take it from some equipment).

We do not attach the diagram, but we will explain the principle of operation of this device. The transformer from the TV controls the relay. The control is carried out using a button, it can be installed on the handle of the spotter itself. When the button is pressed, the contactor is closed, which is connected to the relay with a wire. Run another wire from the contactor directly to the switch. That's all.

Gather all the components together and install on the bed. You can get to work.

When connecting a homemade spotter, try to avoid current losses. This is very important since the welding is carried out by the resistance method. Our recommendation is simple: don't use long cables. Short ones will do a lot better. Also choose cables with a large cross-section. Remember to thoroughly clean the metal before starting work.

Also note that a homemade spotter from a welding machine will not be as compact as factory models. It is best to use this device stationary, so its use will be the most comfortable.

Homemade spotter or factory one: which is better?

Many craftsmen may have a reasonable question: "Why assemble a homemade spotter if you can buy it in a store?" It is logical. But not everything is so simple.

Factory spotters are very expensive. This is highly specialized equipment, so it is not produced on the same scale as inverters or semiautomatic devices. Buying a factory spotter is not advisable if you are a garage master and will use the device a couple of times a year. In such cases, it is better to assemble the spotter yourself from the available parts.

homemade spotter

A homemade spotter will be reliable and maintainable. You will know exactly what components it is made of and how much they cost. Therefore, you can calculate in advance the repair of such a device and not worry that you will have to go to an expensive service.

However, assembling a spotter with your own hands is not always justified. For example, at a service station, it is better to use a professional factory-made apparatus. It will give you a lot more options and will allow you to correct even the most serious body defects. You should understand that a homemade spotter is a low-power device. It is only suitable for modest renovations.

Also keep in mind that certain skills are required to assemble a spotter. In this article, we attach a very simple instruction, where there are no complex wiring diagrams and no need to bother. But you must understand that even such a simple apparatus must be assembled with the skills and knowledge. Better yet, experience. Otherwise, you will not get an assistant, but a potentially dangerous device.

To summarize: a homemade spotter is a great option for a garage or summer cottage. It is unpretentious, inexpensive, easy to repair. But at the service station it is better to use professional factory-made spotters. Their functionality is much more, which is important when performing professional body repair.

Instead of a conclusion

The spotter is necessary for both professionals at the service station and for the home craftsman in the garage. Without this device, it is difficult to imagine a full-fledged body repair. It allows you to quickly and efficiently correct body defects. In this case, it is not at all necessary to buy a factory device. You can assemble a homemade spotter from a transformer from an inverter welding machine with your own hands.

Before assembling the spotter, make sure that this undertaking is reasonable. A hand-made device is much cheaper and more reliable. But are you ready to spend time and effort assembling the device that you will use once a year? Think about it. We wish you good luck with your work!

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I decided to make myself, after watching a video, which I don't remember anymore. I wanted to make it cheap and cheerful. I watched almost all the videos and re-read all the reviews. Previously, I came to this conclusion - it is necessary to do it from microwave transformers, be sure to 3 pieces. It is too expensive to refuse a solid-state relay. I started with transformers, the operations are standard: cut, rewind, weld. Instead of copper, I used an aluminum bus bar from an electric motor and stuffed it into the transformer window to the maximum. A cross section of about 110 squares was obtained.

12 tires, 6 in two rows

we wind it as tightly as possible

we weld by squeezing in a vice, we protect the windings better

It turned out two turns per transformer, we connect them in series, in total we have about 5 volts at the output. I used homemade screeds to connect. I would like, of course, to make all the windings a single wire, but it was very difficult.

We tighten the tires as tightly as possible

The case for transformers was welded from a centimeter square

Now about the control scheme. Having three independent primary windings, I used three triacs, each for its own transformer. This eliminates the need for an expensive solid state relay. The cost of one triac will not exceed 100 rubles. Thyristors are installed on one radiator; an indicator is used in the control circuit. The operating time is set with a variable resistor. The brain of the Atmega8 circuit.

Full size

The circuit is constantly changing

Full size

16 pin connector for indicator

Initial circuit

At the first turn-on, first one triac burned out, at the next two the remaining ones. In-depth study of the topic led to a change in the scheme. The circuit used optocouplers with a transition through 0. And this is logical (I thought).

However, a really powerful transformer must be turned on at the maximum amplitude. Now I can't find a link, but there is a very detailed article on the net, where all the calculations on this matter are given. Therefore, I threw out the zero-optocouplers and put the simple ones. I changed the triacs to KU208G, even from old stocks.

KU208G

Leave the circuit energized for a while. One of the triacs, apparently, spontaneously opened in one direction, sent a half-wave to the transformer, magnetized it and safely burned the primary winding.

Primary winding aluminum

Trash can transformer

Conclusion: A triac is not the best key for a transformer, even in an ideal triac, the characteristic is not symmetrical, which means that magnetization cannot be avoided. Microwave manufacturers have known this for a long time. They made it very cleverly, for a split second the triac is turned on through a resistor, the processes in the transformer settle down and only after that the relay is connected. And already all the main power goes through this relay. The relay is a good key for the transformer, given that there is a preliminary low-current connection.

Block diagram of the device on the right, three transformers connected in series.

Block diagram

The primary windings are connected in parallel. Each winding is switched via a triac and relay contacts.

The algorithm of operation is as follows: We fix the mass, set the operating time of the spotter with a variable resistor, press the electrode with the hook, press the start button, the controller determines the maximum point of the mains voltage, and opens the power triac through the triac optocoupler. Since the triac is connected in series in the circuit with a resistor, a part of the voltage will drop across it. After one period, the controller shunts the triac with relay contacts. The relay from the old alarm is 12 volts 8 amperes. Three transformers turn on for a given time, the hook sticks, the relays turn off, the triac closes. Thanks to such a scheme, it is very easy to implement autostart. To do this, three times a second, one of the triacs opens in turn and the voltage at the output windings is checked. If it is not there, then the secondary circuit is closed and the same sequence of operations occurs as when turning on from the button.

Unfortunately, since the circuit has been changing all the time, there is no final printed circuit board. Everything is connected by mgtf by weight.

Boards not yet stacked

Except for the transformers and wires, the whole circuit with the board cost about 3 thousand Comrades asks to make a payment for him too, if my hands get it, I will do everything on one board, including triacs on the radiator. I myself am far from a tinsmith, that's why gave it to a neighbor in the garage for verification. He liked the spotter's work very much. He compared it with his factory one. I don't have any equipment yet, so I can't make a video. I think I will give it to tinsmiths for checking, in exchange for a video about work. Positive moments - no twitching of the network during operation, confident autostart, choice of operating modes, non-linear time clock. You can refuse from the LCD indicator, there is no readability, so it is still constantly under the threat of an accidental blow tool. If there is absolutely no indication at all, then it is better to make LED columns. But I think this is unnecessary, it is enough to calibrate the variable resistors.

Spotters are convenient and easy-to-use electrical equipment designed for spot welding. The main purpose of such devices is straightening and body repair of car body elements, as well as use in everyday life when performing finishing and construction work. The manufacture of such tools is not particularly difficult, therefore, if there is a high-quality drawing for assembling a spotter, each of us can do all the necessary work.

Straightener tool

By its design, a homemade spotter for straightening body elements vaguely resembles inverter machines designed for spot welding. Due to the use of various replaceable working nozzles, such units are versatile in use, due to the possibility of flexible current adjustment, high-quality welding of various metals can be performed.

The most popular today are inverter spotters, which combine compact dimensions, provide high-quality welding current, and due to the simplicity of their design, they can be easily done independently. It is only necessary to use high-quality components, and all the work should be done according to the existing assembly scheme for such a tool.

Homemade spotters

Homemade spottersThe simplicity of the design allows all the work to be performed independently, even with initial knowledge in the field of radio electronics. Choosing a specific scheme for the manufacture of such equipment, we recommend that you rely on the following characteristics of the welding machine:

  • input current - 30 amperes;
  • the indicator of the consumed voltage is 220 volts;
  • working indicator of current strength - 250 amperes.

With the help of a semi-automatic pulse spotter, it is possible to perform spot welding of refractory metals, which makes it possible to use such equipment for car repairs, as well as in everyday life when performing construction and repair work. The excellent performance of such devices allows you to use homemade spotters when performing large amounts of work.

The spot welding machine includes the following components:

  • device body;
  • battery;
  • Power Supply;
  • power unit;
  • drivers for power keys.

Having the basic concepts for the manufacture of such equipment and the simplest experience of reading the diagrams of welding machines, you can easily make a spotter that will have excellent performance characteristics. Accordingly, even with such simple equipment it will be possible to carry out high-quality spot welding of refractory metals.

Materials and tools for work

Spotter accessoriesThe quality of the work performed directly depends on the correct choice of materials and tools. That is why you should purchase and use only high-quality microcircuits and other components that will be required for the manufacture of such equipment.

To make a spotter for do-it-yourself body repair, you will need the following:

  • sheet metal;
  • elements for the manufacture of electronic circuits;
  • copper wires and strips;
  • thermal paper for insulation;
  • fiberglass;
  • mica and textolite;
  • small screwdrivers;
  • soldering iron for working with microcircuits;
  • knife and hacksaw for metal.

The equipment that is used in everyday life is designed to work with a voltage of 220 volts. However, on the Internet, you can easily find schemes for the manufacture of such powerful industrial spotters that will work in a three-phase network with a voltage of 380 volts. If we talk about the advantages of using household spotters, we can note their high-quality welding current, simplicity of design, reliability, ease of operation and high efficiency. Even without relevant experience in spot welding, you can easily use spotters that provide a high-quality connection of metals.

We make food and power unit

Spotter for body repair.It is on the quality of the electric current received by the apparatus that the trouble-free operation of such equipment directly depends. Therefore, special attention should be paid to the correct manufacture of blocks with power supply. The basis of the power supply will be a transformer, which is performed with three or four windings.

  • To complete the first winding, you need a wire 0.3 mm in diameter, from which about 100 turns are made.
  • The second circuit includes 15 turns and is made of thick millimeter wire.
  • The outer third body is made of 20 turns of wire 0.3 mm in diameter.

A relay is connected directly to the power supply, to which a voltage of 25 volts is supplied. To lower the voltage, resistors are used that reduce the electric current and are responsible for converting alternating current into direct current already at the output of the power supply.

The diode bridge, which is an intermediate link between the power supply and the power unit, is responsible for converting electric current and reducing its power.

It will also be necessary to think over the cooling of the power supply, for which the used transistors and diodes are installed on computer radiators or fans and coolers are mounted from the power supply of an old PC.

The used power unit at the spotter simultaneously lowers the voltage and increases the amperage. Such an inverter power unit can be made from two cores, which are insulated with newsprint. The winding is performed with a copper strip, the thickness of which is approximately 0.25 millimeters.

You should not use ordinary copper wire for winding the power current core, since, due to high heating, such a wire can melt, which will lead to the failure of a self-made device. The core windings are insulated from each other with paper from the cash registers. This tape is durable, durable and prevents short circuits and completely insulates the inverter winding.

Equipment cooling technology

During operation, the power unit and the inverter part of the spotter heats up significantly, respectively, you will have to think about how the body of a do-it-yourself welding machine will be cooled. The easiest way to cool the spotter is with a fan and coolers from the computer. Today, in electrical stores, you can pick up ready-made coolers, the cost of which is not too high, and their connection to the circuit is not particularly difficult. You can also disassemble an old power supply unit from LATR or a computer and connect the fans directly to the spotter blower.

Assembly guidelines

Microwave spotterAll the work done on assembling a digital spotter can be divided into several stages. Initially, all the components used are purchased, the diode bridge, the power unit, the inverter, the power supply are assembled separately, and only after that the spotter is directly assembled from the semiautomatic device with their own hands.

You can either use a ready-made case from an old computer, or make a box of sheet steel and other materials at hand. In the event that you use a metal case, then you must carefully insulate it. All components are firmly attached to the case with insulated fasteners and connected to each other.

Clamps-washers and trigger pliers for the welding cable are brought out to the central panel, and a small toggle switch is installed here to change the current strength and a start button to start the spotter into operation. In the event that you are making a welding machine that implies the ability to change the current strength, then you need to use an additional PWM controller and timer, which are installed at the output of the inverter and allow you to stepwise regulate the current power at the output from the device.

Making a spotter from an inverter

Making a spotterUsing the simplest manipulations, you can make a universal spotter from the existing welding inverter, which will be distinguished by high power, functionality and versatility. All you need is to purchase additional diodes and a thyristor unit, which are additionally connected to the inverter circuit.

Finding the simplest schemes for making such spotters from inverters on the Internet will not be difficult. To make a spotter from an inverter with your own hands, you will need to use:

  • contact group of 220 volts;
  • relay for 30 amperes;
  • diode bridge;
  • thyristor 200 volts;
  • a step-down transformer.

The made diode bridge is connected to the circuit to the inverter and the transformer. The spotter is controlled by a thyristor circuit that is connected to a transformer. Also directly from the transformer is the output of the power cable connected to the welding gun.

How to make a welding gun

Body repair spotterA special feature of a do-it-yourself spotter from a welding machine is the presence of a working pistol, which allows for spot processing of metal. You can make such a welding gun and a reverse hammer yourself from similar devices for sealant and construction glue, or you can purchase ready-made tools that will be convenient and easy to use. Note that the manufacture of welding guns presents certain difficulties, so it is still recommended to use industrially manufactured welding tools for a spotter.

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