Paradoxically, the most frequently mentioned minus of a water floor in a wooden house is a consequence of one of the main advantages of a natural covering. It's no secret that wood has high insulating properties. In a specific case, this means significant losses of energy released by pipes, that is, unnecessary heating costs. In addition, this material tends to change its characteristics due to temperature changes or fluctuations in moisture levels. If so, do you need to look for other ways to heat the floor of a wooden building? Let's not rush.
A water floor in a wooden house works on the same principle as central heating. The water heated in the boiler is distributed through the collector through the pipes and constantly circulates there. Highways generate heat, which acts on the flooring, making the life of the inhabitants of the rooms more comfortable. The concrete screed, which is traditionally the layer between the system and the floor, allows energy to pass through normally. However, when a dry warm floor in a wooden house is also wooden, problems arise. Boards, of course, do not reflect heat, but they also do not conduct it very well.
Basically, you could just pour the screed and put on any coating you like. But we are talking specifically about how to make a water-heated floor in a private house on a wooden floor under parquet or laminate. The arrangement of the screed is not suitable here. Up to 300 kg of concrete will be additionally pressed on each square of the base. Even the most powerful structure, made according to all the rules, will not withstand such a load. Also, we must not forget about the substrate - an insulating material that is almost always placed under the boards. He is also not an ideal conductor of energy. The way out lies in modern technology, which is currently adhered to by almost all masters specializing in this process. Such an installation of a water-heated floor in a wooden house provides the following advantages:
- the shortest terms of commissioning;
- minimal heat loss during heating;
- the total weight of the structure and the pressure on the base are significantly reduced;
- no need for underlay and screed;
- it is possible to repair the system without spending effort on the destruction of concrete.
In any case, you need to start with the calculations and purchase of the necessary heating equipment. It is best to purchase a ready-made design from a trusted manufacturer, but some users prefer to save money and assemble the elements separately.
Dry underfloor heating on wooden floors will not work without the following elements:
- boiler (gas, electric, etc.);
- ball valves;
- a pressure pump, which may be present in the boiler configuration, but even in this case, another one is usually bought in addition;
- collector with the required number of branches;
- all kinds of connectors;
- additional control devices.
The choice of a collector and a boiler, their connection are topics for several large articles. Let's dwell on the pipes. Before you make a warm floor from heating in a private house on a wooden floor, you need to clearly calculate their length and layout step. A separate contour is created for each room. Exceptions are possible but not recommended. For computational tasks, special programs are used. You will need to take into account many parameters, ranging from the number and size of rooms and ending with the power of the boiler.
Calculation errors can be very costly. The system can quickly start to malfunction, for example, alternating cold and warm spots all over the surface, or simply not heating enough. When you install underfloor heating water in a private house with your own hands on a wooden floor under parquet, the cost of mistakes can be damage to an expensive coating. In the end, heating equipment can simply break down long before its appointed date. Here you can save more money on the services of professionals.
Pipes for a warm water floor from a gas boiler in a house along wooden beams are usually made of PEX polyethylene. Other options are worse either because of the quality or the high price. The most widespread are products with a diameter of 16 to 20 mm. It is enough for the pipe to withstand a pressure of 10 bar and temperatures up to 90 degrees. Expensive models with additional degrees of protection do not give much advantage, especially if the question is to save money.
When you distribute pipes for warm water floors in a private house on a wooden floor, certain rules must be followed. It is recommended to start laying from the outer walls. They are colder. The most common way of placing highways is "snake". When it comes to interior rooms, you can lay in a spiral - from corner to center and in the opposite direction. The standard step is from 10 to 30 cm. If several circuits are connected to one collector, it is important to bring the hydraulic resistance in the pipelines to a single or at least close value. To simplify this task, it is recommended to divide the water-heated floor in a wooden house with a screed into additional sections.
Description of construction
The system, which was specially designed for buildings with joist ceilings, is installed according to the following scheme. Initially, special channels equipped with metal distribution plates with a recess are arranged on the logs or board cover. Heating pipes will be located in these recesses. The plates additionally protect a light warm water floor in a wooden house from pressure from above, acting as stiffeners. If there is a need for a substrate (for example, it is planned to lay linoleum), use GVL or DSP boards. It is important that the insulating properties of these materials are at the lowest possible level.
There are two ways to form channels for hot water supply lines: purchase ready-made chipboard modules or using slats. The first option is much simpler and more convenient. You buy a chipboard with pre-prepared grooves, the pitch between which meets the requirements of the manufacturer of the heating system. The set includes heat-distributing metal plates, pipes and fasteners. Collecting such a water-heated floor in a wooden house with your own hands will not be difficult for anyone. You just need to strictly adhere to the instructions of the instructions and be careful. The main disadvantage of this solution is the price, which is far from affordable for everyone.
The second option is much cheaper but requires more work. We are not talking about self-made grooves in chipboard plates, but about fixing pipes with rails. The latter are made from ordinary boards or sheets of moisture-resistant plywood with a thickness of 21-28 mm. The distance between the battens is usually equal to the thickness of one batten. It is important that the pipes carrying the liquid of the warm floors of a wooden house lie freely, without the risk of being crushed as a result of a sudden deformation (shift) of the coating. The width of the guides is determined by the step between the lines of this circuit. There is one more solution - to use both modules and rails. This method makes it possible to significantly save money and at the same time speed up the process.
Consider how to make water-heated floors in a private house on a wooden floor using slats. It all starts with preparing the foundation. The entire surface should be carefully inspected and any elements whose strength is in doubt should be replaced. Minor defects can be eliminated with building materials, after which the base can be thoroughly dried and cleaned. It is also recommended to additionally insulate the surface. Bars are nailed to the bottom of the beams or lags. A slab insulation is laid on them.
The next step to getting a dry warm floor in a wooden house is water-based flooring with a layer of polyethylene or other insulating material. A damper tape of a standard width of 5 cm is attached along the perimeter of the room (at the level of the plinth). Then, based on the pipe layout, they mark the guides with the required step.
Based on this information, we determine the dimensions of the rails and procure them. Now, you can proceed directly to the installation of a warm floor from heating in a private house on a wooden floor:
- We lay the guides according to the markings so that there are pipe channels between them.
- We fasten them to the base with self-tapping screws.
- In the resulting channels, we lay foil (material thickness from 50 microns), in places we fix it with a stapler.
- We lay highways along the channels, fixing them on the rough surface at regular intervals. It is also recommended to wrap the pipes with foil.
- We connect the system and test it.
- We lay parquet, laminate or other covering in accordance with the manufacturer's requirements.
We can assume that the warm floor in a wooden house is water-based on wooden floors without a screed. Keep in mind, however, that the process described above should only be carried out after careful calculations. It is better to contact a specialist for this service. If you have no experience of such work, it will be difficult to do everything right. The result will be a challenge to the same master, but on completely different conditions of cooperation.
If you are interested in how to make a warm water floor in a log house on logs in other ways, you can try the next solution. First of all, it is necessary to mount a rough base made of wooden (chipboard, fiberboard) boards. It is more economical to use plywood, which is also easy to process. Having received a new surface, mark the path of the contour. From fiberboard boards, as the softest, plates are cut out, which will become the basis for the finishing coating.
They are stacked in such a way that a space of 2-3 cm remains - this is where a warm water floor will be installed in a wooden house with wooden floors. It is recommended to add additional foil to the grooves. This will make it possible not to use a metallized reflective insulation, but to replace it with a cheaper analogue. Further, the pipeline is fixed, and all the manipulations described above are carried out. The disadvantage of this technology of underfloor heating in a wooden house with water on wooden floors is the impossibility of laying parquet. This solution is perfect for laminate flooring.
Another option is to lay the pipes on solid boards. This is a rather tedious decision that requires a special tool and patience. The point is to drill grooves in the planks. In this case, you will definitely get a high-quality dry warm floor in a wooden house with wooden beams. We warn you right away that it is not easy to mill reliable solid wood, especially in the absence of the appropriate skills. In addition to laboriousness, it is also an expensive pleasure, given the cost of the material.
Each board will need to make one or two grooves depending on your piping layout. Foil is laid in these holes, and on top of it - lines. The panels are fixed on the joists in such a way that a solid flat surface is obtained. Having made a warm water floor from a gas boiler in a wooden house with your own hands according to this principle, you can lay any covering on it, including parquet and tiles. The heat output will be higher than with other solutions. Thanks to the foil, it will practically not be transferred to the roughing boards, which will make it possible to significantly save energy.
If you want to know more about how to make water floors in a wooden house with your own hands, you can get the necessary advice on our website in Moscow. Experienced experts will provide detailed answers to your technical questions. In addition, you can chat with other visitors to our site who have already encountered this process.
Nowadays, you will not surprise anyone with low-temperature heating made in the floor screed. Due to their many positive qualities, such systems have become often used in modern buildings. Until recently, one question remained unresolved: how can you make a water-heated floor in a wooden house, because the floor beams are not designed for a screed mass of at least 200 kg per 1 m².
It is noteworthy that the best way to arrange floor heating for wooden dwellings has appeared quite recently. Let's take a look at this technology and find out how to properly arrange light heat-insulated floors without a screed, including with our own hands.
Why "dry" warm floor?
What is the beauty of the traditional scheme, where the underfloor heating pipes are walled up in the screed? Let's list briefly:
- low coolant temperature (maximum - 55 ° С), which allows saving energy resources;
- uniform heating of the surface of the concrete floor from the embedded pipes;
- comfort from the heat coming from the lower zone throughout the entire area of the room.
The catch is that the water-heated floors in a wooden house retain all the listed advantages, but without a heavy cement-sand screed. Judge for yourself how many functions are performed by wooden floor beams:
- They perceive static loads from furniture and interior partitions.
- They compensate without deflection the weight of the topcoat, subfloors and insulation.
- Withstand constant dynamic influences from the movement of residents.
- They carry their own weight and serve as lateral stability elements of the building.
Imagine adding to these loads a heavy concrete monolith weighing 1-3 tons in each room. In order for a wooden system of beams to withstand the mass of such a structure, their cross-section will have to be increased by 1.5-2 times, which will increase the cost of construction. The solution to the problem is to make a so-called flooring system of a water-heated floor, arranged in a dry way without a screed and having a low weight (about 20 kg per 1 m² of the area of the room).
Heating water circuits of wooden buildings are allowed to be embedded in concrete under the following conditions:
- when the covering of the first floor of a private dwelling rests on the ground or a strip (slab) foundation;
- in dwellings made of SIP panels with a thickness of 200 mm, resting on a strip or pile-screw foundation;
- if powerful beams designed for the weight of the screed are laid in the base of the floor of a chopped or frame house.
Lightweight decking system design
The key element of dry-laid warm water floors in wooden houses is a metal plate with a groove in the form of an inverted Greek letter Ω (viewed from the end). The walls of the recess tightly enclose the body of the pipe with the coolant, and the side “wings” of the plate increase the heat dissipation area instead of the screed.
Reference. Plates for uniform distribution of heat flux are made of galvanized steel and aluminum. Their width is different and is selected depending on the pitch of the pipes (standard - for a distance of 150 and 200 mm). The product can be broken with your own hands into equal parts thanks to the transverse notches (perforations).
Using metal diffusers, a water floor heating device can be performed in several ways:
- using the technology of the well-known Uponor brand, laying pipes of heating circuits in the gaps between the floorboards;
- using special polystyrene plates for underfloor heating, equipped with protruding lugs or ready-made grooves;
- with burning out depressions in ordinary foam with a special apparatus;
- using sets of wooden products, where grooves are made for heating water circuits.
Each technique has its own pros and cons, but they are united by 3 important properties: low weight, efficiency and the absence of "wet" processes, which significantly speeds up the installation. Whichever method you choose, the "pie" of the floor remains unchanged and consists of the following layers (from bottom to top):
- The basis for laying the insulation.
- Heat insulating material.
- Heat distribution plates.
- Circulating heated water pipelines;
- Fine flooring.
Note. When installing water heated floors on a wooden base, a vapor barrier film and a diffusion membrane (waterproofing) can be used in the heating "cake".
Now we will figure out in detail the best way to insulate the floor and how to properly make a warm floor in a wooden house, using any of the above methods. But first, a few words about the selection of components.
Choice of materials
Before installing heating water circuits in a wooden house, it is necessary to insulate the floors. Therefore, you will have to choose 3 groups of components:
- type of insulation;
- pipe material;
- plate material.
Among the common and available heaters for thermal insulation of wood structures, mineral (basalt) wool is best suited. It is permeable to water vapor, thanks to which it blends well with wood, gives it the ability to "breathe" and does not cause rotting. Another thing is that when laying mineral wool, it is necessary to ensure the exit and removal of these vapors, otherwise it will get wet through and stop serving as a heat insulator.
Advice. For insulation of the covering of the first floor, it is better to use basalt fiber with a density of 40-80 kg / m³ and a thickness of at least 150 mm, and in the northern regions - 200 mm or more. Mineral wool 50-100 mm thick will be used for the interfloor overlap. Its task is not to let the heat intended for the upper rooms into the premises of the first floor and to serve as soundproofing.
Polymer heaters - polystyrene foam, expanded polyethylene and extruded polystyrene foam - practically do not allow moisture to pass through. Therefore, they must be used wisely, otherwise the wood in the places of contact with the polymer will turn black and rot. The minimum thickness of materials for thermal insulation of the floors of the first floor is 100 mm; it is enough to lay 20-30 mm in the ceiling.
On underfloor heating without screed, arranged on wooden logs, the following types of pipes with a diameter of 16 and 20 mm are used:
- made of cross-linked polyethylene with an anti-diffusion layer that does not allow oxygen to pass through;
High-quality polyethylene pipes (for example, from the Rehau brand) are no cheaper than metal-plastic and are not inferior to it in terms of operational properties. Hence the conclusion: there is no fundamental difference between these types of polymer pipelines, they are equally good for underfloor heating.
Copper pipes are much more expensive than plastic pipes, and it is more difficult and longer to install them. But, from the point of view of heat transfer, copper is unmatched, and therefore it is successfully used for floor heating of any buildings. An important point: do not use copper heating circuits in conjunction with aluminum heat distribution plates, these metals are absolutely not friendly with each other.
Since the thermal conductivity of aluminum is higher than that of steel, plates made of this material are more preferable (excluding copper piping). But keep in mind that high-quality aluminum distributors are 1.5-4 times more expensive than galvanized ones.
Note. The prices of aluminum and galvanized plates from different manufacturers fluctuate in a wide range and cannot be compared, because they are made of metals of different thicknesses. Hence the advice: try to purchase thick-walled products, they are able to accumulate and transfer more heat energy.
Of recent materials of interest are flexible corrugated stainless steel pipes. They are durable, can be installed without welding or soldering, and at the same time they transfer heat well and can be used in lightweight decking systems.
Calculation of pipe length in each circuit, laying pitch and surface temperature is presented in a separate publication. Check out the methodology in order to accurately determine the amount of materials.
Installation with Uponor technology
The technique has become widespread as the simplest and most affordable in terms of monetary costs. Mineral wool acts as an insulating material here, pipes and plates can be taken at your discretion and financial capabilities. The essence of the method is in laying wooden boards with a thickness of 20 mm on logs at intervals of 2 cm for the further installation of a water-heated floor, as shown in the diagram:
Note. A similar scheme can be used in any residential buildings where wooden floors are laid on logs, including over concrete foundations.
To make warm floors with your own hands using this technology, you will need an ordinary set of locksmith and carpentry tools, as well as special scissors for cutting polymer pipes. When arranging underfloor heating on the floor of the first floor (above the ground or an unheated basement), perform the work in the following order:
- Nail in 25 x 25 mm skull bars flush with the lower edge of the beams. On top of them, lay sub-floors of 20 mm planks, as shown in the drawing below.
- Cover the sub-floor together with the joists with a waterproofing film (technical name - diffusion membrane) with the waterproof side down. Observe an overlap between the canvases of at least 10 cm and carefully glue the joints with double-sided tape.
- Lay the mineral wool slabs over the waterproofing so that they do not wrinkle, otherwise the basalt fiber will partially lose its thermal insulation properties. The thickness of the insulation should be at least 5 cm less than the height of the log, in order to provide a ventilation gap between the surface of the cotton wool and the future wooden flooring to remove moisture.
- Spread the vapor barrier film over the logs. The polyethylene must be tightened and fastened to the tree with a stapler so that it does not sag in the gaps between the beams.
- Beam boards 2 cm thick across the lag, stepping back 30 mm from the wall. Depending on the pipe pitch (15 or 20 cm), leave a 20 mm gap between the boards for the heat distribution plates.
- Insert metal plates into the slots and lay out the heating pipes over them, inserting them into the Ω-shaped grooves. To turn the pipe, shorten the ends of the boards at this point by 10-15 cm.
- Run the ends of the pipes along the walls to the underfloor heating comb, connect them and check the tightness of the system. Install a floor finish.
The method of laying a water-heated floor on wooden logs is shown in detail in the video:
Work on the interfloor overlap is carried out in the same order, only subfloor boards can be nailed directly to the logs from below. By the way, instead of wood, OSB boards can be used here, while hemming the ceiling of the first floor.
Important! Do not confuse a diffusion membrane with a vapor barrier film, otherwise the mineral wool will be saturated with water and cease to be a heater. Waterproofing at the bottom of the "pie" protects the cotton wool from getting wet from the outside, and the top film does not allow water vapor to penetrate. In ceilings, the opposite is true - the vapor barrier is laid from below, the membrane - from above. To remove moisture from the insulation, there is a 5 cm ventilation opening and air vents made in the walls of a wooden house.
Along with simplicity and low cost, this method of installing water heated floors has one drawback - pipes can only be laid with a "snake", which is why the premises of a wooden house have to be divided into several heating circuits in order to achieve uniform heating.
Installation instructions for polystyrene system
This method of laying the underfloor heating circuits makes the work much faster and easier, since it involves the use of two-layer polystyrene foam plates with guides in the form of protruding bosses. For the manufacture of plates, polystyrene of different density is used - the upper layer is more durable, the lower one is soft.
The technique is suitable for any floor with a flat surface, for example, from OSB plywood (as in houses from SIP panels). Warm water floors on a flat wooden floor are made using the following technology:
- Cover the logs with OSB sheets and fasten them with galvanized self-tapping screws. If work is being carried out on the wooden floor of the first floor, then mineral wool insulation should be laid between the beams, as described in the previous section. The thickness of the polystyrene system is not sufficient for full thermal insulation of the building from below.
- Secure the damper tape on the walls around the perimeter.
- Place the surface of polystyrene foam plates on the finished surface, bonding them between themselves on the castles.
- Install the scattering plates in accordance with the scheme and step of laying pipelines, fixing them between the buses. Unwinding the pipe from the bay, insert it into the deepening of the plates.
- Cover the heating contours of the plastic film, performing the nesting and cloak of the canvas.
- Mount the base of the flooring of the gypsum-fiber sheets (GVL), where to subsequently put the finishing coating (the popular option is laminate).
Details of work are shown in the video material from the Russian manufacturer of polystyrene foam systems - Rustepal Company:
Council. Before the decoration of the finishing coating, attach the lines of highways from the contours to the collector of the distribution and mixing unit and tested for tightness (crimping) with a pressure of 4 bar.
The advantages of the figure insulation for warm water floors are obvious - simplicity and speed of installation work, the ability to lay pipes not only "snake", but also snail. There are disadvantages:
- high price;
- Material can suffer from large mechanical loads;
- Due to the lumen between the buses, a small part of the heat is spent on the useless heating of the air under floor coating.
Other ways of laying pipes
The base for wearing loops, where you can insert metal plates, and other products can be served:
- Plates made of polystyrene with ready-made grooves;
- Factory sets of wooden products with cut-out pipelines;
- Polystyrene sheets with a density of 35 kg / m³, where the recesses are cut out with their own hands using a special thermoem.
In addition to expanded polystyrene with bobbs, there are polymer plates with ready-made deepening. This option is suitable for mounting on a flat surface and inside the overlapping flush with lags, which is shown in the diagram:
Note. Disadvantages of the option - the need to cut the grooves in the lags for the passage of the tubes and fastening the polymer in the corners so that it does not lay down to the wood. Therefore, plates with deepening is better to put on the base of OSB plywood or aligned boards.
A large plus of wooden sets for a water floor heating device is the ability of the coating without deformations a larger load from bulky furniture. Products with cutouts for plates are mounted on beams along with insulation, as described above (brand technology Uponor). A typical wooden warm floor has only one disadvantage - high price materials.
Homeowners who have time, can save on a polystyrene system by purchasing thermal chapels for burning grooves and the usual high density foam. The technology is simple: insulation plates unfold on the aligned surface, after which they need to burn the pipeline route in accordance with the scheme. It remains to install heat distributors and insert pipes into them.
Is it possible to save on materials
Since components for outdoor heating without a screed are a decent money, many masters - craftsmen found ways to do without them:
- Putting the heating branches inside the overlap, right on the insulation. Then Ω-shaped products are not used.
- Make cutouts in the boards yourself, and instead of plates along the length of the grooves, roll out aluminum foil used for baking.
- Make steel heat spreaders yourself using metalworking equipment.
- You can also make a wooden system for laying pipes in grooves yourself, for example, from chipboard sheets.
Of the listed options, only the last 2 will allow you to save money and at the same time organize effective heating. Indeed, on a listogib machine, plates can be made from any metal, only the groove profile will turn out to be rectangular, and not "omega-shaped".
When laying pipes inside a wooden structure, they have poor contact with the finishing coating and heat the air around them more than the room. In order for such heating to have an effect, the pipes must be laid at a distance of 10 cm from each other, and the temperature of the coolant must be raised to the maximum. Then the idea loses its meaning, it is easier to install radiators.
Thin aluminum foil serves as a poor heat flow distributor due to its thickness in hundredths of a millimeter. In addition, it disintegrates over time from gradual oxidation, so it makes no sense to use foil.
There is another way to save money - to organize heating of a wooden house with electric underfloor heating using infrared film heaters. But such a system will lose its versatility, that is, you can only use electricity for heating, you will have to forget about gas or wood.
On the pros and cons of "dry" floor systems
In conclusion, I would like to note the advantages of underfloor heating without a screed that can attract owners of private wooden houses:
- The design is lightweight, reliable and efficient at the same time.
- Unlike heating circuits embedded in a screed, in such a system it is easy to detect a leak and eliminate it.
- The thickness of the "pie" protruding above the upper cut of the log is from 20 to 50 mm.
- Water floors with scattering plates made of steel or aluminum are not able to accumulate heat and are practically devoid of inertia. Accordingly, they quickly warm up the rooms and quickly respond to automation commands and changes in the flow rate of the coolant in the loops.
- Quick installation due to the absence of "wet" processes and solidification of the solution. How light warm floors are arranged in a short time is shown in the next video:
For reference. On various Internet resources, there is conflicting information about the reduced heat transfer of a floor system compared to a monolithic one. In theory, this is true, but in practice the difference is small, and it is quite difficult to make a comparison.
The only drawback forcing home inventors to be smart with aluminum foil is the price of steel products, especially when bundled with shaped polystyrene foam. You can get around this nuance as follows: make a warm floor in all rooms in turn, upon the appearance of financial opportunities. First, you need to insulate the floor and put a comb, and then gradually install the piping, starting from the premises where the residents stay constantly.
Most people believe that underfloor heating is unnecessary for wood flooring. This is mainly due to the advantages of the natural material, such as lightness and good insulating properties. In addition, installation is difficult due to the possible deformation of natural wood due to temperature and humidity changes. Nevertheless, today a solution has already been found to the problem of how to combine a plank covering with a modern floor heating system.
Floor installation without screed
A water heat-insulated floor without a screed is used quite often today. The concrete base, of course, is reliable, but it will not be possible to install it in any room. It is in these cases that an alternative heated floor system is used. Installation of such structures is easier to decorate the screed, and in operation they are in no way inferior to it.
Underfloor heating system without screed
If the house is built of timber, the rooms have low ceilings, the implementation of a concrete screed can additionally "capture" an already small space. In addition, laying a concrete base is time consuming and messy work. In this case, a water-heated floor in a wooden house with your own hands will be the ideal solution for you.
The water floor without a concrete base is installed on a wooden or polystyrene coating. Pipes are laid in special grooves. For better distribution of warm air, special metal plates are mounted. The laid pipe system is covered from above with a waterproofing material, and a finish coat is applied to them.
Piping system for wood underfloor heating
Advantages of a water-heated floor
Having a small thickness, such a system allows you to save the usable area of the room. Installation of the structure is easy to carry out on any type of floor. In this case, immediately after installation, you can perform surface finishing.
Some features of installation
The mechanism of functioning of the underfloor heating system involves the transfer of energy from the coolant to the material above it and the topcoat. Then the floor, warming up, gives off heat to the room.
Water underfloor heating device
If the floor has a conventional concrete screed, this principle works great. However, in the case when the laid pipes filled with water or ethylene glycol are surrounded not by a concrete base, but by natural wood, the natural material prevents heat transfer. Of course, water-heated floors can be mounted on a wooden floor, but such nuances must be taken into account. The wood will still not let all the energy generated by heating into the underground, but heating in the room may not be as effective.
Regardless, a traditional concrete screed is not the best solution to the problem, as the heavy concrete layer will put pressure on the plank floor. Even if a reliable structure is made during construction, natural wood may not withstand a heavy load. In addition, often in a wooden house it is required to equip a bathroom or a bathhouse by installing a warm floor in such rooms, and it is inappropriate to make a too strong and massive base in such rooms.
Floor covering of a water-heated floor
An equally important factor that complicates the installation of the system is the presence of a substrate, which must be laid on the wooden floor. The materials for the substrate are based on various types of insulation, which also prevent the free passage of heat. Nevertheless, all the negative aspects of the installation can and should be taken into account and successfully cope with the task. So, if you are interested in how to make a warm water floor on a wooden floor, you should be patient and carefully study the special advanced installation technology.
Other design characteristics
The underfloor heating system will be lightweight. Heating up from the pipeline, the structure transfers heat to the coating in full and indirectly to users. During installation, the substrate should be laid under linoleum flooring, carpet or ceramic tiles if the floor is installed in a bathroom.
The arrangement of such a system will not take much time. When installing, there is no need to wait 28 days for the screed to harden.
Laying a water-heated floor on a wooden base
Usually, a water-heated floor on a wooden base is ready for use almost immediately after the installation of the topcoat. Another advantage of this design is that it is easy to repair areas of the coating with minor defects and damage. It should be noted that the presence of a cement screed complicates the restoration process.
There is a common technology that you need to master if you are interested in the question of how to make a warm floor in a wooden house. The water underfloor heating system for wooden floors is installed using the flooring method.
Pipes with a coolant circulating through them are not laid in a concrete screed, but on logs or a rough base of boards in specially equipped channels.
Installation of a water underfloor heating system
In order for heat to accumulate and distribute properly in the channels, special plates with longitudinal grooves for the heating circuit pipeline are reinforced.
Metal plates not only perform the function of heat transfer, but also make the structure more rigid, which makes it possible to do without a substrate.
If you carry out the installation yourself, you don't have to buy expensive plates, but instead use 200 micron foil. Sometimes, when finishing the floor with tiles or laying linoleum, the presence of a backing is desirable. To do this, you will need to purchase sheets of gypsum fiber board or cement-particle boards with the smallest insulation values.
We lay pipes for the water floor system
This can be done in two ways. Their differences lie in the design of the channels for placing pipes. As a rule, installation technologies based on modules or rails are used.
For the first option, you should buy special ready-made modules from chipboard. They have already cut grooves at a certain distance from each other. These gaps depend on the expected heat dissipation of the system.
Modular installation of a water-heated floor
The kit of such a modular system, as a rule, includes everything you need: the modules themselves with grooves in them, metal plates, fasteners and pipes. It remains only to assemble the structure in accordance with the diagram attached to the product. However, modular flooring is not cheap. Therefore, many people prefer an alternative - the budget rack and pinion method.
It involves not equipping channels in chipboard sheets, but stuffing the rails. The planks are cut from board or plywood. The gaps between them should be equal to the thickness of the lath, since in the formed grooves the pipes, the outer diameter of which is 17 mm, should not only fit freely, but also not collapse from the displacement of the wood. The width of the guide strips depends on the distance between the pipes in the manufactured structure. So, with the method of laying pipes "snake" with a step of 300 millimeters, a 22 mm plank should have a thickness of 278 mm.
Mixed method of installing a wooden underfloor heating
Some technicians prefer to use another installation method, which is a cross between a rack and a modular option. In this way, floor heating can be done easily, quickly and without spending a significant amount.
They begin by choosing quarters in the edged board with the dimensions of the channel. Having measured at least seven centimeters from the wall, use a cutter to make a strip or recess so that the pipe is brought to the next row. The thickness of the board should exceed the parameters of the selection, and the width should be equal to the step during installation. You do not need to lay the rough base, and the strips are attached to the logs with the help of self-tapping screws.
Installation of a heated structure on a light rail base
If the system is to be laid on an old wooden floor, the floor must be carefully inspected before starting work. It is better to raise the floorboards, check the condition of the lag, and, if necessary, carry out restoration or replacement of worn out and damaged structural elements. Sometimes it is necessary to nail wooden beams to the beams on the floor and additionally lay insulation.
The next step is to install the insulation.
Insulation laying process
For this, polyethylene is suitable, which is laid out with an overlap. A damper tape with a width of 5 centimeters is attached to the wall along the perimeter of the floor covering. For the installation of a warm floor with a water circuit, it is convenient to use the "snake" pipe laying method.
On a pre-drawn plan-diagram of the room, we mark the section for the supply of pipes and the points of attachment of the equipment for adjusting the system, you also need to draw the position of the guides with the necessary gaps. Usually it is 150 - 300 millimeters. It is better to use corrugated pipes with a diameter of 16 millimeters. The slats are made in accordance with the dimensions.
Next, the underfloor heating is laid along the logs. Lay out the guides. You need to leave channels for the pipeline between them.
"Snake" pipe laying method
Then we fix the guides to the subfloor using self-tapping screws. The corners of the planks in the pipe bend sections should be rounded off. Foil with a thickness of at least 50 microns is placed in the prepared grooves. Pressing lightly and smoothly bending around the recess, fix it. At several points, you can attach the material to the battens with a stapler.
If the pipes in the system are also wrapped with foil, then the heat transfer of the structure can be slightly increased.
We lay the pipes into the formed channels. For attachment to the subfloor, metal plates are also used. After that, they connect to the heating circuit and pressurize the heating system. After checking the normal functioning of the water floor, you can immediately proceed to the finishing with tiles or lay the substrate, if necessary. From the materials for the substrate, it is recommended to use DSP boards that do not contain formaldehyde.
A wooden underfloor heating on a water circuit can be completely installed with your own hands. It is not at all necessary to spend a lot of money. Today, you can successfully cope with this task using a special step-by-step technology of rack or modular laying.
- Rack layout
- Underfloor heating device in the diagram
- Insulation laying process
- Laying a water-heated floor on a wooden base
- "Snake" pipe laying method
- Piping system for wood underfloor heating
- Modular installation of a water-heated floor
- Underfloor heating system without screed
- Installation of a water underfloor heating system
- Floor covering of a water-heated floor
- Laminate flooring for water floor heating system
- The appearance of a water heated floor
Is it possible to assemble water-heated floors with your own hands on a wooden floor? Often such a question arises when you want to independently arrange a water-heated floor in a room that already has wooden floors, and there is no desire to dismantle the latter. Moreover, if they are of good quality and in good condition. In this article, we will consider the possible options for such an installation, what is needed for this and how you can do it yourself.
Methods for installing water heated floors on a wooden base
If you decide to arrange water heated floors on an existing wooden flooring made of boards, then several options for such an installation are possible:
- In the floorboards, voids (grooves) are selected, in which water heating pipes are laid, and on top - a laminate.
- Chipboard boards or strips are stuffed onto the wooden floor in such a way that voids (grooves) are formed in which the pipes are laid, and the floor covering is mounted on top.
- Logs are stuffed onto a wooden base, between which insulation is laid, and pipes are laid across them and boards of the base of the floor covering are nailed.
Each of these options has its own advantages, disadvantages, installation features and can be optimal in a particular case. And in order to decide which one is right for your case, we will consider them in more detail.
Heating pipes in selected slots
This method is suitable if the room has a well-insulated, high-quality wooden floor, but there is no possibility or desire to raise its level to a height of more than 1 cm.
Before proceeding with the installation of a warm floor, it is necessary to calculate its thermal power based on the heat loss and the area of the given room, as a result of which we find out the length and diameter of the pipes that will be needed for this. You can do this yourself using calculators that are easy to find on the Internet or seek help from a specialist. Here we will not consider this issue, but consider only the technology of installing a warm floor.
Knowing the dimensions of the room, as well as the required total length and diameter of the pipes, we draw up a scheme for their laying. We transfer the scheme from paper to nature - to the floor surface and mark the routes of the grooves for the pipes. Their dimensions should be slightly larger than the diameter of the pipes. For example, for pipes with an outer diameter of 16-17 mm, grooves of 20x20 mm are suitable. They can be selected using a power tool (cutter) or manually. But the second option requires quite a lot of time and labor.
Grooves for underfloor heating pipes
When the grooves are ready, you can start laying floor heating pipes. But in order for the heat of the coolant to be directed only upward, to heat the room, they must be laid on a material that will reflect thermal radiation. These can be special metal plates or ordinary foil. The latter is a cheaper option, but requires more care when working. Once laid in the groove, the edges of the foil can be stapled to the base boards with a stapler.
Pipe laid in a groove on foil
Heating pipes are laid in grooves on top of the heat reflector and fixed there with metal plates. In this case, the surface of the base for the floor covering must remain flat, with differences of no more than 2 mm, so that there are no problems during installation. The best option for such a coating, in this case, is a laminate. After the installation of the warm floor is completed, the substrate is simply rolled out over the surface, and the laminate itself is laid on top.
Underfloor heating pipes laid in grooves and on heat-reflecting plates
Laying laminate on a water-heated floor on a substrate
Benefits this way:
- Requires a minimum amount of materials - there is no need for an additional volume of wood (logs, boards) or insulation;
- The floor level rises to the minimum height - only on the thickness of the floor covering.
- Wood floor should be quite well insulated;
- The need to sample grooves in boards, which requires a special tool and skills to work with it.
If you are as an outdoor coating, you decide to use linoleum or carpet, then on a warm floor, you will first have to make the base of plywood or OSB plates. This option is inferior on the efficiency of laminate, since both plywood and chipboard will be delayed heat. In addition, of them, when heated, harmful substances used to glue the wood can be released. And not all types of linoleum are environmentally friendly when heated.
Pipes between boards stuffed on the floor
This method differs from the previous one that the grooves are not selected, and on top of the boarded flooring, the boards are stuffed or strips, cut from wood-chip (chipboard, oSB) in such a way that the grooves for the heating pipes come between them. It is simpler than to make their sample in the most wooden base, but at the same time the floor level will rise higher than in the first version, on the thickness of the bought boards or strips.
Stripes are stuffed on a wooden flooring
In the future, water warm flooring technology on a wooden base is identical to the one that is considered in the previous method:
- Cellular plates or foil are stacked in the grooves;
- Mounted and attach pipes for which the coolant will circulate;
- The substrate and laminate is stacked.
Laying Heat Cooling Metal Plates
Water warm floor pipes laid on heat-reflecting plates
Advantage This method:
- There is no need to choose the grooves in the base boards, the work is performed quickly and simply;
- Relatively small height of the floor level.
- More materials are required (board, strip of wood-chipboard) than in the first method;
- The floor level rises to a large height than when samping the grooves;
- As in the first embodiment, the base must already be reliably insulated.
Pipes on lagha
In this case, lags from bars are styled on the wooden floor, and the insulation is stacked between them: Minvata or Polynespen. The height of the lag is selected at the height of the insulation layer. The boards or strips of wood-porcelain boards are stuffed across the lag in such a way that the water heating floor pipes can be laid. After that, as in the first two cases, a heat transfer material is established in the formed grooves: special metal stripes or foils. The heat-reflecting material, in the grooves, lay water heating pipes and secure them in transverse metal stripes.
The scheme of "cake" of warm water floor on wooden lags
This method is advisable to apply if the wooden floor, when it is laying, was not insulated or the insulation was performed, but it is clearly insufficient (less than 10 cm). In the first case, the thickness of the insulation is recommended and, accordingly, the height of the lag is at least 10 cm, in the second - at least 5 cm. It should be noted that the level of the floor, with this variant, will rise to a significant height: 8-15 cm. Therefore, such The option is acceptable if you can lift the floors in such a height.
Warm water floor on wooden lags and insulation
Benefits This method:
- The possibility of using on non-insulated or poorly insulated floor;
- During installation, additional thermal insulation is performed.
- The level of the floor surface rises to a considerable height;
- The greatest consumption of materials, in comparison with other methods (timber, boards, insulation).
More than one generation of people has grown up and lived in a wooden house. Modern materials and construction technologies are gradually replacing wooden houses from the construction market, but even today many people, planning the construction or purchase of suburban housing, turn their attention to wooden houses. This is not surprising, since it is wood that is the most environmentally friendly and by its nature close to us wall material. Owners of wooden houses note the special aura of a wooden building, it is easier and more calm to breathe in it.
Unfortunately, over time, the tree tends to dry out and the owner of the wooden house faces the issue of thermal insulation and warming. The biggest problem is the loss of heat through the non-insulated wooden floor, which has dried out over time or even was originally made in violation of the technology of selection of materials and their installation.
Sooner or later, every owner of a wooden house comes up with the need to insulate the floor covering. At the same time, they are trying to solve the second problem - additional heating of the house. Underfloor heating will be an excellent option for insulation and additional heating in the house. Despite the seeming complexity of the work, a water-heated floor in a wooden house with their own hands can be put to any home craftsman who has the skills to work with the simplest construction tools.
What is a warm floor, what is it like
Many will probably be surprised, but the warm water floor is not an invention of this century. It was successfully used even ... in ancient Rome, and a little later in Greece and Turkey. It was there that the floors and sun beds in the baths were heated with hot water. The water was heated in special rooms (prototypes of modern boiler rooms), then it went through special troughs and circulated under the bath room, filling it with heat. A little later, wealthy Romans began to use this method to heat their homes. Unfortunately, this method eventually supplanted new technologies and gradually began to be forgotten.
Only in the 20th century, people began to create new technologies for underfloor heating and successfully implement them for heating homes.
Warm floors are of two types: electric and water. Each of these types has advantages and disadvantages. It should be noted that it is the warm floor that creates the most comfortable temperature for a person in certain areas of the room.
Choosing a warm floor for a wooden house
The owners of wooden houses mistakenly believe that for the construction of a warm floor, it is necessary to completely disassemble wooden structures and make a cement screed. This is an erroneous opinion, since today there are proven technologies for dry laying of a warm floor system.
When installing an electric underfloor heating, a special thermal cable is laid, which radiating heat, heats the floor and the entire room itself. The owners of wooden houses are quite reasonably wary of laying current-carrying structures on a wooden floor and in most cases they choose a water-heated floor. In addition, a water underfloor heating is more economical and can be connected to an existing heating system from a boiler or stove.
"Pie" underfloor heating
Any warm floor is a kind of cake from several layers:
- The bases - in our case, this is a wooden base.
- A layer of waterproofing to protect against heat loss.
- Hot water pipes that are laid on a prepared base.
- Finishing floor covering.
For a wooden underfloor heating, as a rule, a rack or modular water floor system is used. In the rack system, the underfloor heating elements are placed in special grooves between the boards, and in the modular system they are placed on special modular plates.
After choosing the installation method, it is imperative to draw up a project for the heating system. This project should take into account not only the technical characteristics of water pipes and hydraulic equipment, but also the architectural features of the structure, its design, and the preferences of the people living in the house.
When creating a project, the existing heat and waterproofing of the floor is taken into account. This will prevent heat leakage in the underfloor space and exclude the possibility of condensation harmful to wooden surfaces forming on the underfloor surface. For a rack heating system, the pipe spacing is carefully calculated and how tightly the reflective foil should adhere to the pipes.
How to make a warm floor in a wooden house with your own hands
As a rule, in wooden houses the floor is made of wood. A water-heated floor is laid on a wooden floor only after thorough preparation of the base.
Waterproofing and insulation
First you need to check if the floor is insulated. If the floor is cold, then in order to avoid further heat loss, it is necessary, first of all, to do its insulation. If the floor is cold, then the boards are removed and they begin to warm it. Pay attention to lags. They must be in good condition, and for the rigidity of the structure, they must be located at a distance of no more than 0.5 m from each other. If the distance between the lags is greater, then it is necessary to lay additional lags.
After that, a layer of waterproofing is laid. For waterproofing, you can use:
- special membrane waterproofing;
- several layers of ordinary plastic wrap;
- roofing material;
Waterproofing will protect the floor structure from moisture, which is always present in the subfloor soil. After that, the underground space is insulated. For insulation, use any material available on the means.
This could be:
- mineral or stone wool;
- expanded polystyrene;
- expanded clay.
The subfloor is laid on the layer of insulation and only after that the plank floor itself is returned to its place. When laying a plank floor, it is necessary to leave twenty millimeter gaps between adjacent boards. It is in these gaps that pipes will be laid in the future. In addition, semicircular grooves are made along each edge of the board. In the future, bends will pass through these grooves to connect the pipes of the system.
Useful advice! For those who are not able to correctly make the necessary grooves, special ready-made chipboard sheets with grooves for pipes are sold in hardware stores.
Setting the reflective layer
Wood is known to be a poor conductor, so a reflective layer must be installed to make the underfloor heating construction effective. The reflective layer can be:
- special aluminum gutter plates;
- galvanized sheet plates;
- foil with a thickness of at least 50 microns.
This layer, reflecting heat from its surface, will direct it up and not let it pass under the floor. When using foil, it is cut into strips of 20-25 cm and placed between the boards in the grooves.
For a warm water floor, pipes of 16 mm diameter are taken. They are placed in the prepared gaps on the reflective layer and then welded. Special welding machines are used: "iron" or "soldering irons". Welding tools are quite simple to use, any master can master the technology of working with them.
The pipes laid in the grooves are wrapped in foil. The edges of the foil are attached to the floorboard with a furniture stapler. Thus, the pipes of the water floor are wrapped in a foil sheath.
Next, wrap the laid pipes with foil so that they are inside the foil bag. The edges of the reflective material are attached to the floorboards using metal staples and a stapler.
Consider! A water floor pipe wrapped in foil becomes a powerful enough radiator. Therefore, it is very important to correctly calculate the pipe-laying step at the design stage. It is also highly desirable to install a special thermostat.
For better fixing of the pipe system, it is necessary to install metal plates across the gaps at a distance of about one meter. Such plates are required at every turn of the pipes. The plates are attached to the wooden floor with small nails or self-tapping screws.
System connection and pressure testing
When designing a warm floor on wooden logs, you should choose connection systems that are not only the most efficient, but also easy to use. It is possible to install a mixing unit, a manifold system, or install a simple system of ball valves and valves with which manual adjustment will be carried out. Often, residents of private houses prefer the latter system, since it is the easiest to operate, and its installation does not require deep knowledge.
Before the topcoat is laid, it is necessary to pressurize the system, that is, check it for strength, damage and leaks. For testing, the system is filled with water and then left under maximum load for 2-3 days. In case of deficiencies, they are eliminated and the testing time is extended.
This step is required!
The installed and tested underfloor heating system is covered with a floor covering. When choosing a finishing flooring, it is necessary to take into account its thermal conductivity coefficient. Wood has the lowest thermal conductivity, and ceramic tiles have the highest. Therefore, it is not advisable to use wood and parquet as floor heating.
Alternatively, laminate flooring can be used. It has a higher thermal conductivity than wood, but itself is warmer than ceramic tiles. Linoleum or carpet is not always suitable for a water-heated floor. If you want to lay these particular materials, you must choose only those that have special designations.
We showed you that it is not very difficult to make a water-heated floor in a wooden house with your own hands. Most of the time will be spent preparing and laying grooved wooden planks. The entire system can be assembled in 3-4 days on average. That is, in a week and a half, your family will already be able to enjoy the warmth and comfort.
Heating floor systems, in which the coolant is water, can be installed not only on a concrete base, but also on a wooden one, and what choice do you have if the floors are arranged on beams, and in general the house itself is wooden? It is the owners of such housing that are offered an article about underfloor heating in a wooden house, water on wooden floors.
Underfloor heating in a wooden house, water, on wooden floors
The organization of underfloor heating can be carried out in different ways, and we will talk about the main ones below.
Installation of the contour on a wooden base
We have already written a lot about the layout of the pipes of the water circuit and its connection to the boiler or existing heating. In this regard, the type of foundation does not play any role, and these works are performed in the same way. The floor cake is just created in different ways, and in the case of beamed floors, there are also several popular methods.
Laying plywood on a wooden floor
Floor heating pipe contour length calculatorGo to calculations
What affects the energy consumption of a warm floor
Option 1 - installation of pipes on logs
Underfloor heating scheme
This option is used when it is planned to use a board as a finishing floor covering, and is suitable for installation on any bases: concrete, beam, as well as on an old wooden floor, which turns from a finishing coating into a rough base.
- Logs from a bar of 50x150 mm are mounted on it with a step equal to the width of the insulation. Any plate insulation is used as it: mineral wool, expanded polystyrene, polyethylene foam.
- So that gaps do not form at the joints of the slabs with the lags, it is better to make the distance between the bars 59 cm with the width of the insulation 60 cm - that is, 1 cm less. Otherwise, so that cold bridges do not form, the gaps will have to be filled with foam.
The width of the insulation should be greater than the distance between the lags
- It is desirable that the plates are foil, then you do not have to separately mount the reflective film. Under the insulation, if it is mineral wool, a vapor barrier membrane should be laid.
- The necessary clearance for laying pipes on top of thermal insulation is provided due to the height of the section of the beam from which the logs are mounted. Special cuts are made in the bars for the passage of pipes.
- A metal or composite mesh is laid on top of the insulation, which will serve as the basis for the installation and pipes of the water circuit. Conventional plastic clamps are used to fix them.
- Then it's a matter of technology: after connecting and checking the system's performance, you can mount a floorboard along the lags. Alternatively, it can be sheet material, on top of which a laminate is laid or linoleum is laid.
Plywood on concrete floor
On a note! This method is the simplest, but such a cake takes up a considerable part of the height of the room. Therefore, if you have an old house with a low ceiling, it is better to choose a different installation option. And one more disadvantage of this method is that the air gap under the coating reduces the efficiency of the system as a whole.
Option 2 - installation of pipes on wooden plates
Laying pipes on special plates
In this version, the structure of the floor is the same as in the first: logs and insulation between them. But the water circuit is not mounted in the inner space between the logs, but on top of the subfloor formed by the sheet material. It is best if it will be DSP or OSB boards, which are both durable and in which case they are not afraid of moisture.
Next is the most time consuming part of the work. For the device of the grooves in which the pipe can be laid, plates are cut out. It is possible from sheet material, but it is more convenient for this purpose to use a 20 mm thick board (if the pipe diameter is 16 mm).
Plates are made from planks
Warm floor in a wooden house
Do-it-yourself floor heating
Considering the width of the board and mounting it to the base with a gap, you get grooves for laying pipes with the right pitch. It remains only to round off the ends where the contour loop turns. The plates are screwed to the base with self-tapping screws, and between them strips of foil are laid with an approach to the surface.
On a note! Alternatively, the pipes can be inserted not into the grooves formed by the two gap-mounted plates, but into the grooves cut in the plates themselves. But this is generally very time consuming and requires more material consumption. Therefore, we will not focus your attention on this method.
Option 3 - mounting on metal plates
When installing a warm floor on wood, heat-distributing aluminum plates can also be used. What is the essence of using this element, you will understand by reading the table.
Distribution plate for dry underfloor heating
Table. Mounting on metal plates.
Step 1. Mounting the log on top of the rough base
|When using metal plates, the floors are also mounted on logs that form a subfloor - or they can serve as an old wooden covering, only well reinforced. On top of it, another row of logs is mounted - already without any insulation, so their height can be minimal.|
Step 2. Measurements of the room
|The plates are mounted on wooden guides, the length of which must be calculated.|
Step 3. Cut the wood plates
|Wooden plates are cut to length ...|
Step 4. Installing the rails
|… And are mounted on logs with a pitch corresponding to the plate size. You will use the plate itself as a template.|
Step 5. Separating the plate segment
|There are special notches on the plate that allow you to separate a small segment from it without cutting. But if necessary, it can be easily cut with metal scissors.|
Step 6. Fixing the plates
|The plates are attached to the wooden base with staples - using a stapler.|
Step 7. Rounding the ends of the guides
|To lay the pipe along the radius, the edges of the wooden guides need to be rounded off. If you have an electric blower, you can do this not before installing the board, but while laying the pipes.|
Step 8. Laying pipes
|A pipe is laid in the prepared recesses of the floor.|
Step 9. Installation of waterproofing
|From above, it is covered with a waterproofing film, after which a damper tape is mounted around the perimeter of the walls. If laminate flooring is used, then one underlay will suffice.|
If you want to make a warm floor on top of an old wooden covering, then you can make grooves for pipes right in it, as shown in the photo below.
Recesses for pipes can be made in a wooden floor
You just have to install the heat distribution plates in the grooves, and after connecting the circuit, lay on top a laminate or two layers of gypsum fiber board, along which you can mount stone or ceramic tiles.
Floor tiles over underfloor heating
Option 4 - using bedding material
If you need to tiled floors, which must be done in some areas of a wooden house, it is better to use the option using a factory underlay for a water floor. It can be rolled insulation with a reflective layer and special markings for laying pipes or special mats with bosses, made on the basis of extruded polystyrene:
- foil backing made of foamed polyethylene;
Foil backing made of polyethylene foam
- polystyrene roll substrates;
- profile mats.
The latter even has a lamella system that makes it easy to attach the pipes to the base. A monolithic screed can be poured over such substrates. The main thing is that under them there is not a simple wooden floor, but a moisture-resistant base made of plywood, particle board or OSB, covered with an overlap on the walls with plastic wrap and separated from them with a shock-absorbing tape.
Profile mats can be used both when laying pipes inside the subfloor (between the logs), and for installation on top of the raised floor, using sheet material mounted on the logs.
Underfloor heating is most effective in large rooms
If the finishing floor is still wooden, pipes on a substrate can be laid between low logs so that the contour is just below their top, and then fill it with gypsum mortar or fill it with dry sand. This will improve the thermal efficiency of the system, which is not up to par with timber structures.
In the case of a wooden floor, the requirements vary slightly.
In general, the variations of the materials mentioned throughout the article - lag and dry screeds, substrates and plates - can be very different. The main thing here is so that the roughing base is strong and protected from moisture , and so that the basic principle of operation of the heated floor is not violated: the heat does not go down, but is reflected to the finish coating.
Prices for warm floors Caleo
warm floors Caleo
Video - Water heated floor in a wooden house
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Few people can be surprised with warm floors. The time has passed when it was considered an attribute of ultra-comfortable housing. Today it is installed everywhere to make your home even warmer and more comfortable. The owners of wooden buildings could not install such a system, since traditional laying technologies do not allow this.
With the advent of the flooring system, it is possible to lay warm water floors on a wooden floor without the slightest problem. We will tell you about all the popular options for the device of a floor heating system for a lumber floor. Independent home craftsmen will find a lot of useful tips here.
Water floor: how does it work?
Water-type floors are a very practical way to heat your home. The system is a liquid heating circuit mounted under the floor.
Traditional technology assumes that the pipes lie in a concrete screed. A boiler is usually used to heat the heating medium supplied to the circuit. Standard models heat the liquid up to 60-90 ° C, which is unacceptable for a warm floor.
If you put a coolant with such a temperature into the circuit, the floor will heat up to 45-60 ° C. It will be impossible to walk on it. SNiPs regulate the temperature permissible for a warm floor. This is no more than 30 ° C.
To obtain such a value, it will be enough to heat the liquid in the circuit to 35-45 ° C. Therefore, they include in the water floor system. Here hot liquid from the boiler heat exchanger and cool liquid from the return pipe are mixed.
There is one more simpler option. If a condensing boiler is used, the mixing unit does not need to be installed.
The design features of such boilers imply the possibility of heating to relatively low temperatures. In some cases, the heated coolant is taken from a centralized system, but this requires obtaining a special permit, which is not always possible to do.
A floor-type water-heated floor is a relatively light structure made of wooden or plastic elements, inside which heating pipes are located
Thus, the liquid entering the heating circuit, and this can be an antifreeze solution or water, heats the floor. He, in turn, heats up the air. The result is fast and at the same time very uniform heating of the room.
A significant plus is the maximum human-friendly temperature distribution in the room. Cool air accumulates in the upper part, warmer air in the lower part. It is this microclimate that living organisms regard as comfortable. In this case, convective flows, which are inevitable in the presence of point heat sources, are not observed.
This prevents the transfer of dust and microorganisms. The pluses include the minimum operating costs. All this makes water floors in demand among users. Comparative analysis of water and electrical underfloor heating systems, which we recommend that you familiarize yourself with.
Features of the decking system
The traditional version of a water-type floor involves the installation of pipes in a screed. It is poured with a solution of concrete with special additives that increase its thermal conductivity.
As a result, the concrete pad becomes a kind of heat accumulator, which makes it possible to use such heating as efficiently as possible. However, the traditional way of arrangement has disadvantages.
The wooden base has a low thermal inertness, which prevents the system from functioning properly. To correct this drawback, heat-reflecting plates made of metal with high thermal conductivity are mounted.
The most obvious is that the weight of the concrete screed is too heavy. With a solution density of about 2000 kg / sq. m, it gives a significant additional load on the base and load-bearing.
For reinforced concrete slabs, such a load is quite feasible. For wooden floors - prohibitive. For this reason, the traditional installation method is prohibited in such cases. The so-called decking system is used here.
It is made in the form of a low flooring, inside which pipes are located. For its arrangement, wood is most often used, but commercially available polystyrene floorings have appeared relatively recently.
The pipes are placed in grooves, where they are fixed. It is known that wood conducts heat very poorly. For this reason, wood systems cannot be an efficient heat source.
To correct this drawback, metal heat-conducting elements are inserted into each groove. They also strengthen the structure. There are similar details in polystyrene flooring with metal inserts, the material of which is also a poor heat conductor. Thus, a reliable and durable heating system is assembled.
Its advantages over the traditional counterpart can be considered:
- Low weight of the flooring, which even wooden floors can withstand.
- Relatively easy assembly, especially when it comes to industrial models of decking.
- No need to wait for the concrete screed to harden. Finishing work can be done immediately after installation.
- Full maintainability. To carry out repair work, it is enough to raise a piece of flooring to provide access to the area with a malfunction.
Another indisputable dignity of the flooring system is a multivariant, which makes it possible to implement the most different modifications. Most of which are homemade. The main disadvantage of the shame is a quick cooling. The floor is heated in a short time and also quickly gives warmth.
The large plus of the flooring floor is the possibility of relatively simple repair. To get to the damaged fragment, it is enough to remove the flooring of the floor and remove the flooring under it
Actually, the heat reserve is limited to those located in a liquid coolant in the pipes. Therefore, when stopping the boiler, the room will cool soon. For this reason, the flooring systems are more often used as an addition to, especially in cold regions.
Device of the filling system
When laying the flooring system, a kind of multilayer pie is obtained, consider each of its layer in more detail.
Requirements for the base under construction
The first layer of cake is a proper basis. It can be any overlap that is previously aligned. Snaps regulate the absence of significant differences of heights, protrusions and roughness. The wooden floor should be smooth, without protruding boards.
Each plank must be well fixed and should not be fed. The maximum permissible limit of the deviation from the horizontal is 2 mm, distributed on 2 m area in any of the existing directions.
Device insulating layer
To prevent heat leaks, it is necessary to improve the insulating layer. The material for its execution is selected individually, based on the operating conditions. It must be moisture-resistant, refractory compatible with other construction materials.
It is advisable to additionally and noise insulation. If possible, the most subtle, but effective material is selected.
Pipe fixation option
The insulation is stacked actually flooring under the pipes. There are many options here. These can be polystyrene mats with special bugs under the pipes. Such mats are released with single and dubbed insulation.
In the latter case, the insulating layer may be superfluous. Lumber from sawn lumber can be used as a flooring. They are also produced in an industrial way. There are also homemade flooring from rails, bars, etc.
Pipe for the movement of the coolant
Next, the prepared attachments and the grooves fit. For the maximum dense adjustment and the creation of the heat screen, the parts are put inside the special profile of aluminum.
If there is no such, you can make similar elements from galvanizing or wrap every detail dense foil. Optimally to lay an additional layer of foil over the mounted pipes.
On top of the pipes under the flooring, it is necessary to put the base. It is chosen depending on which the finish coating will be laid.
If the installation of tiles, ceramic or PVC, as well as a linoleum or carpet, on metal elements of wooden flooring is placed moisture-resistant plasterboard. In case, polystyrene mats were used to arrange the flooring, GVL placed in two layers.
The flooring is usually covered by the base under the finish coating. It is selected depending on the material, which chose as a coating. Under laminate, for example, stacked with moisture substrate, under the tile - moisture-resistant plasterboard or chipboard
Drywall is not laid under the laminate on the wooden flooring. Instead, foam polyethylene or a cardboard backing is placed on the aluminum plates.
Instead of GVL, you can use moisture resistant chipboard or plywood. A good solution is glass-magnesium sheets, which, moreover, conduct heat well, which is absolutely not superfluous when arranging a heating floor.
Options for arranging a water floor
Flooring under the water floor can be made in a variety of ways, which is especially popular with home craftsmen. Let's consider several options for such designs.
Option number 1. Implementation of a ready-made solution
This is the easiest way to do it. A flooring kit is purchased from a hardware store. There can be two variations of this solution. The first is polystyrene mats equipped with pipe fittings.
They can be duplicated with a layer of insulation. In this case, they can be laid directly on the base. The main advantage of such mats is the extremely simple installation. However, they are not strong enough to mount the flooring directly onto the mats.
Under the soft coatings, as well as under the tiles, you will have to lay two layers of gypsum board. The flooring can also be assembled from modules made of chipboard. They are factory-applied with recesses for pipes with a certain system pitch. The modules are completed with fasteners, metal heat distribution plates and pipes.
Polystyrene mats are an excellent solution for arranging a water-borne floor. This option allows you to equip a super-thin water floor that eats up a minimum of the height of the room.
To connect the parts to each other, a lock connection is provided, which greatly facilitates assembly. Such structures are strong enough and do not require additional reinforcement. Their main disadvantage is their high cost.
Any of the ready-made solutions requires careful preparation of the base. If it is an old floor, a thorough revision is carried out. The damaged areas are discarded and repaired. Boards are securely fixed, height differences are removed. Then all debris and dust is removed, and the base is primed.
After it dries, the insulation is laid and fixed, if required. The next step is laying the mats. A suitable glue is applied to the outside of each of them, usually "liquid nails", and the plate is glued to the base. It is important that the adhesive adheres well and holds the mat securely in place.
If it is planned to lay chipboard flooring, it is assembled in strict accordance with the instructions issued by the manufacturer. After the pipe channels are ready, start laying. can be produced by "snake", "snail" or any other suitable method.
The elements are connected into a single system and connected to the heating system. Next, a pressure test is carried out and the performance of the water floor is checked, after which they proceed to the installation of the floor covering.
Option number 2. Decking on logs
Work begins with the preparation of a wooden base. If it is an old floor, all necessary repairs are carried out. Then it is necessary to lay the logs on which the warm water floor will lie under the wooden floor. The prepared logs are set strictly at the level with a distance between the elements of the order of 0.6 m.
This is the best option, you can lay parts with a long distance. But in this case, thicker boards are required to form the flooring.
Preparation of the foundation is a very important point. It is advisable to lay a new sub-floor under the structure, but you can also use the old one if it is in good condition. All damaged areas need to be repaired
The beams are securely anchored to the base. Further, between them, the base is equipped with lags, on which the insulation will be laid. To do this, boards, plywood, chipboard or any other suitable material are lined to the beams.
If you want to save money, instead of the base, you can nail corners or slats to the logs, on which the insulating coating will rest. But you need to understand that in this case it should be tough and not free-flowing. Insulation is laid on the prepared base. It can be polystyrene, high density rock wool, polystyrene, etc.
After the formation of the heat-insulating carpet, the flooring is started. To do this, take boards with a thickness of at least 0.03 m. They begin to screw them to the beams. The first is fixed at a distance of 0.02 m from the wall surface, a similar gap is made when fixing all other parts.
An important point is the choice of the width of the boards fixed to the floor. It should correspond to the width of the metal heat distribution plates, which will subsequently be inserted into the resulting grooves.
The pipe will be laid in a "snake" manner, which implies the need to make grooves for its turns. For this, special gaps with a width of about 0.15 m are left at an equal distance from each other.
To form the bend of the pipe through which the coolant circulates, some of the boards are fixed at some distance from the wall
In practice, it looks like this Two boards are screwed with a deviation of 0.5 cm from the wall, the next two - at a distance of 5 - 7 cm. And so on until the end of the row.
On the opposite side of the base, those boards that were fixed against the wall are screwed at a distance, and those with a gap - close. Thus, a groove is formed for the pipe bend. After the entire flooring has been laid, proceed to the installation of the heat distribution plates.
They are inserted into the grooves formed by the boards and securely fastened with staples or ordinary nails. It is optimal that the sides of the adjacent plates close together.
Then a solid heat transfer screen will be formed. Now you can start laying pipes. It's easier to do this together. One worker will unwind the coil, and the second will deal directly with the laying.
The part is pressed into the groove of the heat distribution plate with little effort. It is best to run the return pipe of the contour loop along the wall under the planks.
After the entire circuit has been laid, check the correct installation again and connect it to the heating system. Pressure testing of the water floor is mandatory. Then you can start preparing for laying the flooring.
Option number 3. Rail construction
Start by preparing the foundation. As in the previous versions, it must be leveled and strengthened. Then any suitable insulation is placed on the base.
The simplest method of installing a water floor is a "snake", therefore it is used most often. For a rail design, this will be the best option. To determine the dimensions of the parts, an accurate floor plan is drawn.
There are several options for installing a warm water floor. The simplest of all options is a snake, the figure shows its diagram
On it are marked the areas where the equipment serving the water floor and the places for the pipes will be installed. Then, with strict adherence to the selected laying step, guides are drawn. The number of necessary parts is calculated and their sizes are determined.
Now we need to prepare the guides. They are cut from any suitable and available material. Then you can proceed with the installation. Parts must be laid on the base in strict accordance with the developed plan.
Each guide is placed on a rough base and securely attached to it with self-tapping screws. There should be channels between the parts, which are necessary for installing pipes. In the sections of the line turning, the sharp corners of the guides must be rounded off so as not to accidentally damage the pipes.
After all the slats are fixed to the base, they begin to lay the foil. To do this, take a material with a thickness of at least 50 microns. The sheets are pressed into the channels, carefully bending around each recess. Literally "laying out" each channel with foil.
So that the sheets do not budge, they are fixed to the slats with a stapler. For better heat transfer, it is advisable to wrap the pipes with the same foil before laying, but this is not necessary.
In order to perform a smooth turn of the pipe and not accidentally damage it, the guides in the bend sections must be rounded. Their sharp corners are removed
Then the pipe is laid inside the prepared channels. To fix it in place in some areas, it is attached to the slats or to the floor with metal plates. At the end of the installation, the water floor is connected to the heating system and a mandatory pressure test is carried out. If it has not detected any leakage violations, they begin to prepare for the installation of the topcoat.
These are only three options for installing a floor-type warm floor. In practice, there are many more. Craftsmen adapt them to their conditions, choosing the materials available and the right technology.
He will acquaint you with the rules, formulas and an example of calculating the floor heating system, which we highly recommend reading.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Video # 1. One of the options for the flooring system:
Video # 2. We compare concrete and floor water floors:
Video # 3. We lay the water floor on a wooden base:
It is possible to lay the water floor on a wooden base only by the laying method. It will not withstand a concrete screed, even the smallest one. The simplest of all the options for arranging the flooring is the use of ready-made polystyrene mats or wooden rails.
They can be purchased at any store. The only drawback of this solution is the high cost, but the installation is simple and very fast. Lovers of independent work will be able to easily assemble the flooring from scrap materials. It will turn out to be cheap and quite workable.
Please write your comments in the block below. Tell us about how you built the underfloor heating system in your house or a neighboring house with a hardwood floor. Share useful information, ask questions, post photos on the topic of the article.
To create a warm and comfortable atmosphere in a modern home, advanced craftsmen often choose to equip floors with heating systems. The installation process itself is simple, but until recently, the owners of wooden houses did not find it possible to install underfloor heating purely for technical reasons.
Today, in connection with the advent of modern technologies, the installation of warm floors on the wooden surface is commonplace. You can easily equip water warm floor on the wooden floor or electrical heating systems.
Types of warm floors on the wooden base and laying features
Start the installation of a warm floor on a wooden base, you need from determining its type. Heating systems are two types - water and electric.
Watch video: what warm floors better choose
Water warm floor
The water system circuit is a pipe structure, a heated coolant is moving. Heating elements are fixed to the base, then joined the central heating node or a separately equipped boiler equipped with a pump.
Installation of water floors is more popular when installing on wooden floors, as uniform surface heating is performed compared to electrical systems. The only, water heating according to the degree of heating will be weaker, and there is a probability of leakage.
Electric warm floor
Electric floor - the current-hand part is cable, film or in the form of thermomat.
- Cable - for sale in the utensils, has different heating indicators and the volume of heat produced. Power is from 120 to 180 W / sq. M.
- Heating mats - a cable type of floor, in it heating elements (cable) are already laid on the canvas with a specific step.
- Infrared film - Contacts are placed at its edge, and the power interval in different models ranges from 150 to 220 W / sq. M.
The electrical systems are easier to install, especially this refers to the film floor. In addition, they have smaller sizes and often, you can do without dismantling the old flooring.
They have less heating time and there is a special thermostat, with which it is possible to set the desired temperature in each room. Electric species have a long service life - up to 50 years.
However, when installing on a wooden base of electric floors there are minuses:
- risk of fire;
- High electricity costs.
In addition, before arranging, you need to check the wiring, for compliance with its high load.
Regardless of the type of warm floor, its laying on a wooden surface is allowed. The main thing is to determine how to install and follow the rules of operation.
Installation of water warm floor on a wooden floor
Proper laying of the water circuit on the wooden floor carries out the optimal distribution of warm air flows in the room.
The top is cool air, and below is warm. It is this scheme that the placement of heat is considered the most favorable. And the absence of convective air flow will create an additional advantage to this type of heating.
Video about laying a warm floor on wooden overlap
Tools and material calculation
Start the water floor installation is needed from the preparation of tools and materials. We define that we need:
- adjustable and wrench;
- Screwdrivers and screwdriver;
- scissors for cutting metal-plastic pipe products;
- welding device;
- plastic pipes;
- Waterproofing film;
- thermal insulation material;
- Equipment for connecting: couplings, adapters, mixer, collectors.
Pipes, for these structures, you can choose from the following materials: plastic, metal, metalplastic. In addition, they can be seamless and suture.
Find out what the pipe consumption for a warm floor can be, calculated per m2.
It is necessary to decide according to what scheme the pipes of the water floor will be laid - in the form of a snake or a snail.
The number of pipes is calculated based on the size of the heated room. Material for insulation and moisture protection, for flooring under pipes and topcoat, is required so much to completely cover the heated room.
The size of the water underfloor heating circuit is calculated in accordance with the step and installation scheme. When a water-heated floor is the only source of heating, the pipe spacing ranges from 100 to 150 mm, and if it acts as an additional heating system - 300 mm.
Preparation of the base
Initially, an assessment of the condition of the existing foundation is required.
The score is:
- visual inspection - boards should be located as close to each other as possible;
- you need to cut the surface from the boards to determine the state of the wood structure;
- removal of rotten elements;
- all cracks need to be repaired - if found, they are filled with a heat-insulating product or a special grout mixture.
The old plank floor must be treated with a plane so that the surface is even and uniform. The degree of unevenness on a wooden surface is not more than 2 mm. Particular attention to the base for a warm water floor is required due to the lack of a substrate in the construction.
If the wooden surface is too old and cannot be repaired, then it should be dismantled and equipped with a new coating. The need for dismantling arises when:
- lack of insulation;
- the presence of a large distance between the lags. Should not be more than 50 - 60 cm.
Floor covering device
In buildings with old wooden floors, it is not permissible to pour a heavy concrete screed, therefore, flooring is used as the main laying method.
Laying system - multi-layer cake:
- The base is even, without cracks and protruding boards. All boards must have a secure fit and not bend.
- Thermal insulation layer - required to retain heat so that it is not wasted. It must be moisture and fire resistant, and it must be compatible with all building materials in the structure. It is good if the product creates sound insulation and has a minimum thickness.
- Pipe liner - it is laid on top of the insulation. Polystyrene mats with lugs, which are designed to support pipes, can be used. They are equipped with special locks, with the help of which the plates are attached to each other. These mats are simple or with an insulating base, then no preliminary arrangement of thermal insulation is required.
A substrate made of lumber sheets, in which grooves for heating elements are sawn out, is allowed. This product is manufactured industrially. It is also possible to make a substrate with your own hands from slats and bars.
- Heating element - then, pipes are mounted in the existing grooves or equipped fittings. To create a good heat shield, the product is placed in an aluminum profile. You can replace this profile with foil, which must be wrapped around each pipe. Okay, put a layer of foil on top of the contour.
Before installing the "pie", the system must be connected to the central heating or to the installed boiler.
Important! It is necessary to check the operation of the device, for the degree of heating and leakage, and only then close the structure with the next layer.
- Underlay for flooring - it is selected depending on the material for finishing, which is placed on top. When installing tiles, linoleum or carpet, you should lay drywall with moisture resistant properties. If pipes are installed on polystyrene mats, then GVL plates are laid in two layers. But when using a laminate on wood flooring, a substrate that can absorb moisture is required - cardboard or foamed polyethylene.
You can notice drywall with plywood or chipboard sheets. An excellent option is glass-magnesium plates, they are good heat conductors, and this is a plus for our design.
- Finishing flooring - a floor product is laid on an equipped substrate.
The installation of the water floor on a wooden base is completed. After carrying out hydraulic and other tests at certain stages of the arrangement, you can begin to operate it.
Installation of electric underfloor heating on a wooden floor
As mentioned earlier, electric floors are: cable, infrared and thermomat. Before choosing a model, you should consider in more detail the installation principle of each system.
Find out which electric underfloor heating is better to choose and why
Cable floor warm floor
This type of floor consists of a cable that is installed according to a certain scheme.
When starting the construction of the "warm cable floor" system on a plank surface, you should first prepare the tools and building materials that you will need for this:
- heating cable;
- insulation and foil;
- corrugated pipe;
- mounting tape;
- a measuring device to test the network;
- a set of working tools: pliers, screwdriver, scissors, tape measure.
When calculating the size of the cable that will be required for the installation of the cable system, it must be borne in mind that the heating elements are located throughout the entire area, with the exception of places where heavy furniture is placed. Location scheme - snake or snail.
Cable system installation process:
- The base is being prepared - the surface is leveled and the rubbish is swept out. If cracks are found, they are rubbed with a special mixture for wood. Polyurethane foam is not recommended for use, because it is a heat insulator.
- Wooden logs are laid - they are fixed to the subfloor on self-tapping screws.
- Thermal insulating material is laid - it is placed in the space between the bars. For this, foil is used, it not only serves as an insulator, but also as a reflector of the heat produced by the heating device.
- A galvanized mesh is mounted - the cable will be attached to it.
- Heating elements are laid on top of the mesh according to the planned scheme. It is necessary to make small cuts in the areas where the cable and the bar intersect.
- The wires are fastened - they are fixed with a mounting film to the bars, and they are mounted to the mesh with clamps.
- The system is connected - a thermostat is mounted on the planned section of the wall, a temperature sensor placed in a corrugated pipe is supplied to it.
- The flooring is being mounted - it is the basis for laying the floor heating. Plywood is used, it is laid on top of the heating elements. The air gap between the cable and the deck must be 10 mm.
- A topcoat is installed - it is laid on plywood.
On this installation can be considered complete, the cable electric floor is ready for operation.
Thermomats are a more modern and functional variety of electrical cable floor. Their plus in a small diameter of the wire (not more than 4.5 mm), which is already fixed on the fiberglass grid according to one of the schemes: snail or snake.
Before work, you need to prepare a standard set of tools - pliers, screwdriver, scissors, roulette.
All necessary material should be purchased:
- Thermomats - the size is calculated based on the room area, minus the places where heavy furniture will be installed;
- Material for thermal insulation and foil;
- corrugated pipe;
- mounting tape;
- Wooden bars and fane;
- Fastening elements.
Step by step, the installation of the construct with thermomats is similar to the laying of the cable, only a bit simpler:
- A wooden coating is prepared - cracks are cleaned and sweat.
- Install bars.
- Thermal insulation is stacked with a foil surface.
- Motocks are made to the placement of mats - under the overall furniture, the thermokabel is not packed.
- The reinforcing grid is placed.
- Thermomats are spread and attached to the reinforcement.
- The thermostat is fixed and connected, and the temperature sensor.
- Mounted substrate from plywood.
- The flooring is stacked.
Important! Before mounting the plywood substrate and flooring, you need to check the system for performance.
Infrared film floor
The structure of infrared is a simpler installation option, in comparison with the cable type of the electrical system. Although, according to its operational characteristics, it is not inferior to this device. Metal plates (graphite) protrude as heating elements.
As with the start of any construction work, you should stock all necessary:
- Infrared film - in size, it should be less than the area of the room, since it is not placed under heavy items (it can experience carboxylic elements).
- In the insulation material with a foil layer - its size should be equal to the entire area of the room.
- Polyethylene film - it is covered with heating elements.
- Scotch and need foil and construction.
- Plywood - her quantity should be enough to display the entire room with two layers.
- Isolation from bitumen and insulating tape.
For your information! You can purchase infrared warm floor ready-made in the store, it contains a complete set of all components for installing the system. But there is no thermistor regulator and temperature instrument, they need to be purchased separately.
To make a warm film floor need:
- construction knife;
The installation of the infrared film cake is as follows:
- Preparation of the foundation. In the presence of a wooden draft base, specialists advise to lay flooring for a film from plywood sheets, ideal if they are with a snatching mechanism. Such a surface is smooth and almost without seams. Plywood is attached to a wooden surface on a self-tapping screw, whose caps are recessed by 1 - 2 mm in a tree. You can pave a small layer of thermal insulation under the faeus, allow foamed polyethylene.
- Heat insulation. The heat-insulating layer is mounted, which provides thermal insulation, its foil surface should be placed up. It is put on the dressing product and attached to the plywood stapler. And the jokes between the plates are connected by scotch, you can use foil or construction.
- Drawing up a plan for the installation of the thermostat and the location of the film. The place of attachment of the thermostat is determined, it is better if it is near the exit from the room and next to the switches. The installation diagram of the film is drawn, all cable wiring is indicated.
Advice! It is recommended to install the machine for the infrared film floor thermostat separately.
- Preparation of canvases. The film is cut to the required length, in the places designated for this, using scissors. It is forbidden to cut the film in any other place.
- Film installation. Infrared flooring should be laid in parallel, copper strips should be laid down.
- Cable insulation. It is required to isolate the sections of the cut of the film, where it is not planned to connect the cable to communications. This is done with bitumen.
- Installation of contacts. The clamps are placed in the places of the copper bus, where it will be connected to the electrical circuit. One clamping plate is placed inside the film, and the other is placed outside, on top of the copper strips. You need to fix the clip securely by squeezing it with pliers.
- Fixing IR film. Underfloor heating strips with fixed terminals are connected to each other. This is done with construction tape, for better fixation, the film can be grabbed along the edges with a step of 500 mm.
- System connection. According to the diagram, the terminals are connected with the ends of the wire. To obtain a good contact, the junction is tightly clamped with pliers.
For your information! There are some models of the film floor in which the connection to the electrical circuit is made using a contact - an eyelet, which is fastened with a rivet.
- Terminal insulation. All terminals must be treated with bitumen tape. One strip is glued to the bottom of the clip, and the other is covered on top of the junction of the clip with the film. After that, both scotch tapes are glued together. Check that all contacts are well insulated.
- Temperature sensor installation. It is fixed at the bottom of the film, on a black strip, at a distance of 150 mm from the edge of the canvas. Fastening is done with mounting tape. The sensor itself and the wire from it are placed in foil insulation to get a flat surface. To do this, grooves are cut out in it for the sensor, terminals and wires. The wires and the sensor placed in the foil insulation are fixed with tape.
- Installing a thermostat. The thermostat can be laid on or mounted in a socket in the wall. According to the model, the laying of the cable to it runs along the wall or fits into the grooves made in the wall.
- Connecting the cable to the thermostat. A cable is connected to the thermostat from an infrared film, a sensor and from a home power source. This must be done according to the instructions that are included with the thermostat.
For your information! When fixing the wire on top of the wall, in order to improve its appearance and avoid accidents, it is placed in a special box that is mounted to the wall.
- System health check. On the thermostat, an indicator of up to 30 degrees is set, and the operation of each canvas is checked. It is important that there is no arcing at the connection points of the terminals.
- Waterproofing. A polyethylene film is spread over the entire surface of the IR floor. It is laid with an overlap of 100 mm and is fixed on tape in several places.
- Installation of the substrate. Plywood is mounted on the heating elements, which will serve as the basis for the flooring.
- Laying the topcoat. The planned covering is laid on the assembled flooring.
In conclusion, it is worth saying that when you are deciding which heating system to choose (water or electric) on a wooden floor, you should first decide who will carry out the installation work.
If you want to independently mount the "pie" of a warm floor on a wooden floor, you must strictly follow the installation technology and the instructions of the system manufacturer.
Watch: do-it-yourself floor heating PENOPLEX
Wooden floor screed
Warm water floors on a wooden floor: all 3 stages of installation, taking into account the characteristics of the base
In a log or frame house made of wood, you can also lay a water-type warm floor. But you have to take into account a number of non-obvious nuances!
In the overwhelming majority of cases, a warm floor on a wooden base is made electric: this is faster and easier to solve a number of technological problems. But installation of water heating is quite possible - and here useful recommendations will help you, which are based on my own experience of laying such systems.
We will analyze the main difficulties that you will have to face when assembling the structure, and we will understand the optimal sequence of work on the construction of such a floor.
Water floors in wooden houses
Features of heating a wooden floor
A water heat-insulated floor under wooden floors, and even more so on a wooden base, is not installed so often. There are several reasons for this:
When working with wood substrates, it is necessary to compensate for the heat capacity of the wood using reflective elements
- Thermal conductivity of wood. On the one hand, this is a plus - the wooden base acts as a heat insulator. On the other hand, the floor will take a long time to warm up. In addition, there is a risk that a significant portion of the energy will be spent on heating the subfloor, and only part of the heat (relatively small) will get into the room.
- Thermal deformation ... Laying pipes with hot water in the thickness of a wooden floor can lead to an uneven change in the linear dimensions of its individual sections. As a result, the stability of the structure is significantly reduced - primarily due to the appearance of gaps in both the rough flooring and the frame.
Wooden bases are subject to temperature and humidity deformations - this feature will have to be taken into account
- Exposure to moisture. Of course, water-heated floor systems are made airtight, trying with all their might to avoid leaks. However, when laying under a wooden floor, even condensation caused by temperature differences can cause the wood to swell.
Pipes must be hidden under the support elements, otherwise they will be damaged when walking on the floor
- Significant thickness of heating elements. If the pipes of a water-heated floor are laid in a screed, their thickness can be easily compensated by pouring the required layer of concrete. When installing on a wooden base, these problems have to be solved differently, since it will not be possible to simply lay a finishing coating over the pipes.
The option of pouring a concrete screed over wooden logs and a rough flooring from a board or thick plywood is usually not considered. The reason is quite obvious: with the required layer thickness, the load per square meter of overlap may well reach 300 kg. For a wooden frame, this is a lot, because it either deforms immediately, or it will hold out for a while - and then it will begin to bend.
The traditional option with screed filling (pictured) will not work here - the load is too great
However, everything that I noted above does not mean at all that a wooden water floor system is unrealizable in principle. If we take into account all these shortcomings and use modern materials, devices and technologies in our work, then a warm floor on logs or boardwalk will work to the envy of neighbors.
How can a foundation be made?
When planning the installation of a warm floor in a house with a wooden floor or a log system, we need to solve the main question - where to hide the pipes?
When laying on a wooden base, the pipes must be protected from stress using spacer inserts made of wood or chipboard
The difficulty here is not only to protect them from stress. This, just, is easy to do - just raise the level of the topcoat by a few centimeters. But in this case, we lose a lot in the efficiency of heat transfer: an air gap forms above the pipes, which acts as a heat insulator. That is, we heat anything, but not the floor itself.
That is why when assembling the underfloor heating system, they try to lay the coating exactly at the level of the upper edge of the pipe.
For this, the following devices are used:
|Illustration||Method of laying the water heating system|
|Prefabricated milled bases. |
To lay pipes in the thickness of the floor at the desired level, chipboards (chipboards) with grooves made on a milling machine are used. We adjust the depth and configuration of the grooves in such a way as to ensure the most rational distribution of pipes with a coolant.
Cons of modular chipboard flooring:
|Rack structures. |
This option is a cheaper alternative to the modular base with milled grooves. Rails are stuffed onto the rough floor, the gap between which corresponds to the diameter of the pipe to be laid.
The thickness of the slats is selected in such a way that the clearance between the upper edge of the pipe and the finished floor is minimal, thus reducing heat losses.
Minus - the gaps on the sides and in the places where the pipes are turned are large, so some of the heat is still lost.
|Polymer mats. |
Grooved polymer mats can also be laid over the subfloor to solve a significant portion of heat loss, warping and wetting problems. They function in the same way as milled chipboard panels, but the efficiency of these products is higher.
Minus - high price, which is only partially compensated by savings on heating.
Any of these options is suitable if we need to lay underfloor heating on plywood or other wooden base. I am a supporter of polymer mats, but milled models from chipboard, and even simple structures from slats stuffed on the floor, have a right to exist.
Prefabricated laminated chipboard base ready for pipe-laying
What do you need for flooring?
So, if we need to mount a heating system with our own hands, we should start with the purchase of materials. I will give the minimum list of what we need in the table:
|Insulation materials for underfloor space: |
|Subfloor materials: |
|Underfloor heating mats.|
|Heat-reflecting metal plates.|
|Plastic pipes for underfloor heating: |
Keep in mind that underfloor heating under a wooden board, linoleum, laminate, tiles, etc. can be installed in different patterns. Accordingly, the set of materials may differ from that shown here. It all depends on what will be used as the finishing layer.
Tools for the job
Since the floor will be made of wood, then you cannot do without a set of carpentry tools
The preparation of the room for the installation of the heating system and the actual laying of the warm floor is carried out using the following tools:
- Saw on wood.
- Drill with a set of drills.
- Knife for cutting heat and waterproofing.
- Brushes for applying waterproofing impregnations.
- Saw or special tool for cutting pipes.
Crimping tool for metal-plastic products significantly speeds up the process
- Tool for fitting fittings (crimping pliers for metal-plastic, soldering iron for polyethylene, etc.).
Piping installation kit. Probably any plumber has such tools.
Stage 1. Preliminary work
The device of a water-heated floor can be carried out both at the stage of building a house, and in an already operated room. Naturally, the amount of work in these cases will be radically different, so here I will describe the ideal situation, that is, I will list the basic requirements for the foundation:
The most effective complex waterproofing, with backfilling and laying of roll materials
- Underfloor waterproofing. To cut off moisture coming from the ground, we must waterproof the underground space between the logs. To do this, first we ram the soil under the room, then fill it with a layer of sand up to 15 cm thick and ram it again. For the most effective protection, a thin concrete screed can be arranged over the backfill or a waterproof membrane (polyethylene, roofing material) can be laid.
Insulation is necessary, otherwise the heat from the pipes of the heating system will go down
- Thermal insulation of the underfloor space. We put insulation on top of the waterproofing layer - bulk or slab. When laying inelastic board materials (high density mineral wool, polystyrene), fill all the gaps between them with self-expanding foam.
Expanded clay as insulation will be effective only when backfilled with a sufficiently thick layer
Expanded clay is effective only when the thickness of the heat-insulating layer is from 30-40 cm. At the same time, it is advisable to fill it with a very liquid cement mortar to reduce the permeability to moisture and obtain an improvised expanded clay concrete.
- Vapor barrier of the insulated layer ... On top of the insulation under the subfloor, be sure to lay a layer of vapor barrier material (glassine, polyethylene, membrane). We place the vapor barrier in such a way that between it almost completely covers the logs. At the edges of the logs, we leave free areas about 50 mm long to evaporate moisture from the wood.
On top of the insulation, be sure to lay a vapor barrier with a gap for air circulation
- Sub-floor laying ... We make a sub-floor for water heating either from plywood, or from boards, or from chipboard panels with milling. We fasten the flooring to the joists, and in such a way that there is a gap of 30–50 mm between it and the thermal insulation layer for ventilation and condensate drainage.
This sequence of actions is suitable for a new building. If we are installing floor heating in an already operated house, then it is enough to check and strengthen the subfloor.
It is advisable to mount a plywood flooring on top of the old plank floor - this way we will get a fairly reliable base
As a last resort, the flooring is opened and, after laying additional thermal insulation / vapor barrier in the underfloor space, it is mounted back.
Stage 2. Preparation of the base for laying
A warm water floor on wooden floors is arranged on a specially prepared base. It must provide the required bearing capacity, hydro and thermal insulation, and also - protect all structural elements from excessive deformations.
The basis of heat-insulating polymer mats is made as follows:
|Illustration||Stage of work|
|Bonding damper tape. |
On the walls around the perimeter of the room, we glue a damping tape made of polyethylene foam. Such a tape is an indispensable element of the construction of any warm floor, since it compensates for temperature deformations.
|Laying mats with grooves. |
On top of the base, we lay mats with grooves for pipes and heat-insulating elements. In this case, two-layer mats are used. Their lower layer is made of porous foam, the upper one is made of sufficiently dense PVC, which ensures durability and reliability of fixation.
We lay out the mats close to the walls. We connect the individual elements with the help of side latches, laying them without gaps and joints.
|Adjustment of thermal insulation plates. |
We remove the metal heat-insulating plates from the packaging and adjust them in length. As a rule, the products have special slots that allow them to be shortened without the use of tools.
When fitting, simply bend the plate along the desired slot and break off the fragment.
|Laying of heat-insulating plates. |
We distribute the thermal insulation plates over the surface of the base in such a way that the configuration of the grooves corresponds to the planned layout of the pipes for the underfloor heating. Standard products are designed for a laying step of about 20 cm, therefore they need to be placed close to each other.
With the correct layout, metal parts should cover 80 to 90% of the entire area.
|Fixation of metal plates. |
We fix each plate on the base, pressing it into the groove of the heat-insulating mat along its entire length. In this case, the recess in the middle part of the plate, intended for laying the pipe, must snap into place on the fasteners of the mat.
You can fix it both with your hand and by stepping on the plates with your foot. In the second case, we use shoes with soles without metal elements, so as not to damage the anti-corrosion coating of the metal.
When laying a warm floor on a wooden floor, be sure to use reflective thermal insulation - either prefabricated or rolled
In principle, the instructions given are universal - they are suitable for milled chipboard, and even for slatted floors. If you want to save money, then the steel plates can be replaced with roll insulation with a foil layer. We fasten the insulation to the rails packed on the base using a stapler, but do not stretch it, but form grooves for laying pipes.
Tubes in grooves between the slats. We lay a separate heat-reflecting substrate under each pipe
Stage 3. Installation and connection of heating pipes
Now we need to lay pipes and connect them to the heating system:
|Illustration||Stage of work|
|Installation of a manifold cabinet. |
In the corner of the room we mount a cabinet with a collector for a warm floor. The cabinet can be mounted both in a wall niche and on a wall surface.
We bring pipes to the collector through which hot water will flow into the contours of the heated floor.
When using a separate heater, we connect the manifold to it using hoses or pipes.
|Layout of pipes. |
We unwind the coil with a pipe with a diameter of 16 mm, gradually expanding the pipe into the grooves of the heat-insulating plates.
When performing this operation, we strictly observe the laying step, we try to avoid twisting and kinking of the pipeline.
It is advisable to make each circuit from a single pipe, without joints in the thickness of the warm floor - this way the reliability will be maximum.
|Fixation of pipes. |
We fix the pipes on the floor in the same way as we fixed the heat-insulating plates: we put the product in the groove and press down with our hand or foot.
With the correct selection of pipes and mounting elements, the contour is securely fixed due to the elasticity of the material and the configuration of the grooves in the plates.
|Connecting to the manifold. |
We connect the pipes to the inputs and outputs of the underfloor heating collector. For fastening, we use fittings that ensure maximum tightness.
|Filling the contours. |
In a floor heating system, you can use both water and antifreeze.
At first, the circuits are filled by gravity until liquid begins to drip from the control pipe.
After that, air is removed from the system, and then the circulation pump is turned on (if its presence is provided for by the design). When the pump is on, the circuits are finally filled.
|System testing. |
If possible, set the desired temperature of the coolant in the pipes. We check the performance of the system, its tightness and uniformity of heating of the circuits.
If there are no leaks or other problems, you can proceed to the completion of the installation.
|Installation of a heat-distribution film. |
For more efficient heat transfer, lay a film based on heat-resistant polyethylene over the heating circuit.
We mount the rolls with an overlap, gluing the joints with reinforced tape.
|Laying flooring or sub-flooring. |
On top of the warm floor, we mount either a finishing floor (laminate, floorboard), or we lay rough gypsum fiber boards.
Equipping a warm wooden floor, and even on a wooden base, is not an easy task. But you can cope with it yourself - if, of course, carefully study the tips and videos in this article, and if necessary, you will seek advice from experts in the comments.